Family History of

Delfido Cruz and Annie Galvan


Shalane Sheley-Cruz

November 22, 2001

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This is dedicated to the one I love: my husband Ricky (aka Richard) Cruz

NOTICE All data and photos on this website are Copyrighted by Karen Mitchell. Duplication of this data or photos is strictly forbidden without legal written permission by the Copyright holder.

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Table of Contents




1. Delfido Cruz

2. Juan Bautista Cruz

3. Sebastian Cruz

4. Jose Luciano Cruz

5. Antonio Joseph de la Cruz

6. Francisco de la Cruz

7. Sebastian de la Cruz


8. Juana Avila

9. Lorenzo Avila

10. Jose Rafael Avila

11. Maria Antonia Maes

12. Juan Manuel Maes

13. Salvador Antonio Maes

14. Maria Barbara Vigil



15. Annie Galvan

16. Jose Francisco Galvan

17. Preciliano Galvan


18. Avelina Suaso

19. Juan Ysidro Suaso

20. Jose Antonio Suaso

21. Ysidro Suaso


22. Guadalupe Sisneros

23. Gabriel Sisneros


24. Fabiana Laforet

25. Jose Francisco Laforet

26. Juan Crisostomo Laforet

27. Francisco Laforet


28. Manuela Pacheco

29. Antonio Estevan Pacheco

Any corrections/additions are welcomed. Please send to: Shalane Sheley-Cruz, 2399 E. 14th # 49, San Leandro, CA, 94577. email:

Family stories are from Henry or Elsie Cruz,  children of Delfido, or their families.

NOTE: In all instances throughout this document where a ritual is mentioned over which a Catholic priest would have resided, since it was quite common for the priest to be a circuit rider, more than likely the ceremony took place in the home or village. But in reality, without personal witness verification, there's no way to know if the family traveled to the church or the priest of the church traveled to the family.  Thus the actual location of a wedding is always in question, except that births are assumed to have occurred in the town given on the record.

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Elfido Cruz (age 23) and Anna Galvan (age 17) were married on October 23, 1913 by Rev. J.B. Leiciotti, of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Walsenburg, (Huerfano County) Colorado, in the presence of Pedro Padilla and Tridorita Padilla.  Elfido and Anna were both from Oakview, a mining town west of Walsenburg.

Elfido and Anna became the parents of ten children, three of whom died at birth:

  • Jose Casimiro (Casi) Cruz, born September 6, 1914 in Oakview and baptized in St. Mary's on Oct 9, 1914.
  • Delfino (Del) Cruz, born November 3, 1916 in Oakview and baptized in St. Mary's on January 12, 1917.
  • John Cruz, born December 15, 1918 in Oakview and died the same day.
  • Maria Amada (Mary) Cruz, born May 3, 1920 in Oakview and baptized in St. Mary's on June 6, 1920.
  • John Cruz, born July 21, 1922 in Oakview and died the same day.
  • Henry Cruz, born June 12, 1923 in Oakview and baptized in St. Mary's.
  • Joseph (Joe) Cruz, born October 29, 1926 in Weldon, Morgan County, CO . (Fort Morgan)
  • Maximino (Max) Cruz, born January 20, 1929 in Montrose, Montrose County, CO
  • John Cruz, born April 28, 1931 in Montrose and died May 1, 1931.
  • Ufamia Aurcelia (Elsie) Cruz, born August 7, 1932 in Montrose and baptized in St. Mary's.

Elsie, Max, Joe
Henry, Mary, Delfino, Casi, Annie

Photo taken approximately 1963-1964 in Salt Lake City, UT. Provided by Charlotte Cruz Schendell, daughter of Henry.

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His legal name was Elfido, not Delfido, the name by which the family knows him.  It is the name on the St. Mary's baptismal and marriage registers, as well as on his marriage license for which he applied at Huerfano County.

Elfido Cruz was born Jan 7, 1890 in North Veta, a small town just west of Walsenburg, Colorado. The eldest son of Juan Bautista Cruz and Juana Avila Cordova, he was baptized at St. Mary's Church in Walsenburg on January 19, 1890 by Rev. G. Ussel with Jose Trinidad Pacheco and Paula Cruz as sponsors, or godparents.

North Veta (or Norte Veta as it was sometimes known) no longer exists. The location from one old map, is now just an empty field. I was also told that North Veta was any of the area north of La Veta and west of Walsenburg.

Paula Cruz was the daughter of Mariano Cruz, the great-uncle of Elfido. Jose Trinidad Pacheco was Juan Trinidad Pacheco, the brother-in-law of Elfido's Uncle Preciliano Cruz. Paula Cruz and Juan Trinidad Pacheco were married December 1, 1888 according to the Huerfano County Marriage records.

Family lore indicates that Elfido was an orphan and my research backs that up, even though I have found no clear death record nor burial record for his parents.

When Elfido's mother Juana died, Elfido's father, Juan, tried to raise him and his brother but was unable to care for them, so they were sent to live with Juana's brother, John Avila.  But Juana's brother was unable (or unwilling) to care for the children and I believe Elfido was sent to live with Juan's brother, Preciliano Cruz. Elfido's little brother, Ben, was clearly raised by Juan's other brother, Nicolas.

Because Paula Cruz and Juan Trinidad Pacheco were Elfido's padrinos, they should have taken over the care of him after the death of his parents. 

Elfido was said to have had three brothers: Pete, Ben and Theodore.  Ben I can account for as a natural brother.  But the others were cousins, definitely not his brothers.  Elfido's Uncle Nicolas had a son Pedro Jose, who was probably the Pete the family knew and presumed was an uncle.  In the 1910 census, Uncle Nicolas also had a son Uvetri (Avetro??), age 4, but the baptismal records only show Pedro as his son.  Possibly Nicolas took in another child and he was nicknamed Theodore? Preciliano did not have any children whose names closely resemble what is remembered but did have several sons.  Otherwise I have not been able to find any Theodore Cruz.  Since Ben was  raised by Nicolas (Ben is listed as a nephew of Nicolas in the 1900 census, and as a son in the 1910 census, both Huerfano County, Colorado), and I'm sure the families were close, possibly Elfido also considered and talked about Pete and Theodore as his brothers, even though they were cousins.

Neither Elfido nor any of his Uncle Preciliano's family were found in the 1900 census, one clue which leads me to believe Elfido was part of Preciliano's household.  Census records showed the family moved around and it is presumed that they were on the move during the 1900 census count.

However, wherever he was living, Elfido was working in the local coal mines by the time he was 13 or 14, which would have been 1903 or 1904.

In the 1910 census, "Delfido" Cruz was living in Cameron, Huerfano County, Colorado, next door to his uncle Nicolas.  (Cameron was a mining town, southwest of Walsenburg.  It only remains today as foundations to a one-time flourishing community.) His age was given as 21 with his wife, Corina, 18 years old.  Both he and Corina spoke English. He worked in the coal mine and an O was listed in the Own or Rent column. Delfido owning his place is suspect since Cameron was a mining town and the housing was owned by the company. Unless, of course, he owned a little place outside the mining owned land, but this is highly doubtful. I can more imagine Delfido telling the census taker that the little lady is his wife (not true) and yes, they owned the house (probably not true).

Census takers sometimes relied on neighbors for their information and the neighbors may have thought the woman living with him was his wife or she or Delfido may have told the census taker they were married.  But no marriage record was found.  Corina could not have been Anna Galvan whom he married in 1913 as Anna was living in New Mexico at the time.  In Anna's own handwriting (in a journal of sorts), she and her family were living in Raton in 1912 and didn't move to Oakview until that September.

Delfido and Anna were married one year later in 1913,  Their first year of marriage could not have been peaceful as during 1913-14 there were coal strikes by the unions.  But Delfido didn't believe in unions (and wouldn't join them) as he felt a lot of the stuff (in the unions) wasn't good.  But the conditions of the coal mines were horrible, with high death rates because miners were paid by the weight of coal produced, were responsible for any safety issues to be done on their own time, which of course wasn't done (and no protection from the black lung disease which could hit them later), and no pay when there was no work (production orders).  Yet they had to pay rent and the company store in order to keep a roof over their head.  In the Oakdale mine, where Delfido worked (next to the Oakview community), gun turrents were erected (which still exist) on either side of the valley in order to keep miners from leaving and supporting the strikes in the other mines.  There was a massacre (17 killed, including women and children) during this time at the Ludlow mine in Huerfano County as the result of the clash between the unions and the owners (see Coal People).   No wonder that Delfido didn't like working in the mines and got out of them when he could. 

During World War I, Delfido worked as a guard on the railroad in Colorado.   No proof of his service in the military has been found, so it is unknown whether he was a hired guard or served in the military as a guard.  During that time he traveled around Colorado and saw other areas of the beautiful state.

In the 1920 census, "Dell" Cruz (which is what his wife Annie called him) and his family were living in Oakview and he was still a coal miner, at the nearby Oakdale mine.  They had two children at that time, sons Casimiro age 6 and "Delfine" age 3. Census takers weren't always careful about spelling, unless of course, that's what they called Delfino when he was three. Oakview is a now abandoned mining town which had apost office from 1907-1930. Next door to the Cruz family in this census is a Angela Lopez (age 52), widow and Henry Cruz stated that his dad lived with "Pres" Lopez at one time, who, perhaps had taken him in for at least a while when he was child.

Delfido and Annie were active socially, at least as indicated by their presence as witnesses at weddings.  The St. Mary's marriage register lists either one or both as witnesses to four marriages of family members, between 1918 and 1923:

  • January 1918 Quirino Huerta and Margarita Cruz (Delfido's cousin - daughter of Uncle Preciliano Cruz).
  • May 1922 Ezequiel Suaso (Annie's uncle - her mother's brother) and Margarita Martinez.  Annie was not a witness, only Delfido, as she was very pregnant at the time.  In those days, pregnant women didn't venture out in public let alone have their picture taken and a photo was taken with Delfido and Annie's sister Susana as attendents.
  • December 1922 Daniel Gallegos and Susana Galvan (Annie's sister).
  • March 1923 Jose Rodarte and Placida Suaso (Annie's aunt - Ezequiel's sister).

Up to 1923, Annie consistently gave birth to her children two years apart (one year apart in the case of the second John and Henry). But then there was a three year gap between Henry and Joe. I was told that Delfido loved to play baseball and the two may be related.  According to Clyne in Coal People, baseball was a favorite pastime among the miners in the coal towns.  From a story handed down from Annie, Delfido took off to play baseball for a while, probably accounting for the gap in the spacing of her children. 

Annie wrote in her journal, "father is away too July 8, 1923" which may have been her way of complaining about his absences.  Traveling baseball teams toured the country during the 1920's and 30's and Del, perhaps being a good player, was hired on by a team -- or else just attached himself to them and took off with the team for periods of time because he enjoyed the game so much.  Evidently Annie took him back when he returned.

Delfido had been injured twice in coal mine cave-ins in Huerfano County, and once had a piece of coal embeded in his head as a result.  Because of this and a high number of deaths in the mines, he knew that his chances for getting killed in the mines were very good (his own father was killed in a mine accident). So some time between 1926 and 1929, Delfido decided to look for work elsewhere.  He first took the family to Weld County Colorado, where he tried farming at Fort Lupton (about 22 miles north of Denver) then on to Fort Morgan and then to Weldona (both are on the Platt River, northeast of Boulder in Morgan County).  All towns are on the railroad line, which may account (at least partially) on why he went there, since it's probable he visited them at one time or another during his stint as a military guard (or ball player).

Delfido finally settled in the city of Montrose in Montrose County (west of Denver and south of Grand Junction) by January of 1929.  There, the family lived at 100 West North 9th Street in the Colonies, located on the the poor side of town. It was said they lived rent-free as Delfido had connections with the beet boss.  The Colonies were to have been to be a part of the beet industry housing, but I couldn't find any connection as the beet production was in Delta, a small town outside of Montrose.

The Colonies were an apartment complex consisting of two parallel buildings made of adobe.  It is unknown what the original intent of the building was for, but it is doubtful it was for apartments.   Unlike a normal configuration of parallel apartments, the front building contained the living room and kitchen for each apartment and in the back building were the two bedrooms for each apartment!  And to get from the kitchen to the bedroom, one had to go through the living room, exit the front door, go out around the back to the second building and enter the one door to the two bedrooms to your apartment!  Talk about a lack of privacy!  Everyone knew your business, including when you went to bed. (No doubt there were no bathrooms, and had privies in the back.)  They have long been torn down.

Delfido's son Henry was in trouble all the time, always shooting off his mouth.  It was raining once and Henry was standing by the window looking out. His father asked him where the rain was coming from and Henry said, "Up there."  Delfido told him he was a smart alec and gave him a whipping.

Delfido would work for the coal mines in the winter and on a farm in the summer.  But probably since he didn't like working in the coal mines, in January of 1936 Delfido was working for the WPA (a federal project to provide work to the unemployed during the depression), helping to build the court house and post office. That was when he fell on a wooden sidewalk in town and injured his head and leg.  His head injury healed ok, but his leg swelled up. The family didn't have the money to take him to a real doctor (let alone a hospital) so a quack doctor was called and treated his leg.  The so-called doctor poured acid on the injury, burning his whole leg.  It didn't heal, and  gangrene developed. Delfido lingered for eight months, laid up in bed.

Henry tells the story that during this time his dad would send him downtown to get some strawberry ice cream in the hot summer. He ran all the way back home but it would melt before he got home.  Then Delfido gave him a whipping (or tried) because the ice cream had melted. I say "tried" because when Delfido was laid up and the boys needed discipline, Annie would tell them to stand by the bed so Del could whip them with a willow switch. Every time Delfido swung the switch, Henry would jump back. Annie asked Henry why he jumped and Henry told her "I'm not stupid."

But it wasn't the gangrene that killed Defido. For according to thedeath certificate "Del Crews" died of heart disease in Montrose on September 27, 1936, probably brought on by being bedridden and inactive for so long.

Delfido's daughter, Elsie, only 4 years old at the time, remembers what happened the day he died. According to Henry, his father's body had been removed from the home.  Little Elsie remembers  being sent to the bedroom to retrieve some clothes for his wake.  When she went into the room, the door latched behind her and after getting the clothes, she couldn't get out. (Remember this was the Colonies and any adults in the front building could not have heard her trying to get out.)  She vividly remembers to this day her father opening the door for her so she could get out.

The information for Del's death certificate was provided by his wife, Annie. She gave his birth date as 1892, the date, I'm sure, he told her he was born. A Dr. Schumerhorn had been attending him for two weeks when he died. A short obituary appeared in the Montrose Daily Press


Del Cruz, 44, who had been ill for
the past eight months, died Sunday.
He is survived by a wife and several
children. Funeral services at the
Montrose Funeral Home, Tuesday at
10 a.m.

Delfido was buried in the "Potter's Field" section for the poor (burial paid for by the county) in Cedar Cemetery in Montrose two days later on September 29.  Years later, when Annie died, the family had a stone with both their names set over her grave.  But if you visit his grave, remember he's not there.   He's in the back with several of his grandchildren. 

Who was Uncle Frank?

The question was asked of me, "Who was Uncle Frank" as some believed him to be a cousin of Delfido and some believed him to be a brother. And how was he related to the Pinedas?

The answer: Uncle Frank was a cousin of Delfido, but Delfido may have considered him to be a brother as they were raised in the same household for a time. And Uncle Frank was later a Pineda step-child.

When his parents died, Delfido ended up living with his father's brother, Preciliano. The fact that there is a family question of Uncle Frank being a brother of Delfido backs this up. Frank was Francisco, the son of Preciliano (born Oct 4, 1903), making him Delfido's cousin. Frank was much younger than Delfido - about 13 years younger - and Delfido probably thought of Frank as a kid brother.  In the 1910 census, Frank and his younger brother and sister are included in the Preciliano Cruz household. 

Preciliano Cruz died in 1917. Then on 14 May 1919 Juan de La Cruz Pineda and Preciliano's widow Agustina were married, making Frank and his brother and sister stepchildren to Juan Pineda household and were listed as such in the 1920 census. Prior to Preciliano's death, the Preciliano Cruz family and the Juan Pineda family were close as Juan was padrino for two of Preciliano and Agustina's children.

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- father of Delfido Cruz (1)

Juan Bautista Cruz was born to Sebastian Cruz and Maria Antonia Maes in the Territory of New Mexico, around 1867, according to the 1870census.  However, the actual location of his birth was in what is now Colorado, before Colorado became a state.  In the 1860 census the family was living in the Culebra district of the New Mexico territory which is in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, the Culebra being a tributary of the Rio Grande.  The San Luis Valley is just west of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range. Juan's older sister, Juana Maria, was born in 1864 and her baptismal records are in the Our Lady of Guadalupe Church in Conejos (San Luis Valley), but records for Juan Bautista are not recorded there.   By 1870, the family was living in Huerfano County.  Juan could have been born in the San Luis Valley, or in Huerfano County (about an hour or so away by car), or somewhere inbetween, and baptized by any traveling priest from any parish.  No baptismal record has been located.

In the 1880 census Juan, his older brothers (Preciliano and Nicolas) and sister (Juana Maria), and parents were enumerated in the same Huerfano County household as Francisco H. Cruz and Bonifacia, Sebastian's brother and sister-in-law, as well as their children -- Juan's cousins: Cecilio and his wife and son Juan D, Rosanna, Dolores, Maria, Rosana and Rafaela.

Juan was listed as age 10, when he was probably 13.  Maybe he was small for his age and no one kept accurate track of his age, or neighbors may have given their estimate. This time his birthplace was listed as Colorado. The two columns, Cannot Read/Cannot Write are checked for Juan. How accurate this information is will never be known. But even at age 13, he could have been in school but there was no indication that any of the children in the Cruz household had attended school within the past year. Juan's father was a laborer in the 1880 census, and his uncle Francisco was tending sheep so it's doubtful the family could afford to send any child in the family to school as they needed them to work at home.

Although there is no 1890 census, Colorado, fortunately, took its own census in 1885 where Juan's age was given as 16.  Juan was more likely closer to 18, another indication that he was small in stature.  In this census, Juan was simply listed as at homeand no occupation given.  His father, Sebastian, was a farmer and more than likely Juan worked on his father's farm. Although they no longer lived in his Uncle Francisco's household (who was now four doors down), they lived next door to his Uncle Mariano and his wife with their five children on one side, and his brother Preciliano and his wife Maria on the other (and her parents next door).  By now Juan would not have been in school, even if he had attended earlier, but the whole family of Sebastian's (as well as his Uncle Francisco close by) was listed as Cannot Read.   However, his Uncle Mariano's family seemed to have told the census taker they could.

There is no record of Juan's life outside of the census. However, I would like to quote a passage out of the book One Man's Family, The Life of Hiram Vasquez where part of Hiram's life as a young man is described in the same place and relatively same time in which Juan lived. The date of this description was 1864, and although 21 years earlier than the 1885 census, times and things didn't change much in those days, so life was probably much the same for Juan:

Owning his own mule gave Hiram a further advantage--personal transportation to fandangos, feast days and celebrations at the tiny settlements springing up throughout the area. On the Huerfano were Badito and Saint Mary's two and a half miles up river from the Butte. On the Cucharas were Oso [near Sand Arroya], Hermanes Plaza, Tequisquite, La Plaza de Los Leones [Walsenburg], and Cuchara Plaza, about six miles further down stream. Several Spanish families were settling on Bear Creek as well as on the Santa Clara and the Apishipa. Hiram's varied duties included keeping Francisco's Ranche well supplied with all the plentiful wild meats--elk, deer, bear, pigeons, turkey, grouse, snow-shoe, and cotton-tail rabbits; and periodically he and Felix went to the plains for buffalo. These far flung activities made him acquainted with each new settlement and its inhabitants, especially the dark-eyed senoritas. So far he was content to enjoy the occasional festive gatherings, although he was sure his choice would be a vivacious black-eyed beauty named Sincain Sandoval, whose family lived on Bear Creek.

The young lady who caught Juan Bautista's eyes was a very young Juana Avila Cordova:

On October 10, 1888, Juan Bautista Cruz (age 19) and Juana Cordova (age 14) were married by Father Gabr Ussel, in the presence of Nicolas Cruz and Deluvena Arellano. Nicolas was the brother of Juan and Deluvena was the wife of Nicolas.

Juan and Juana had three sons, one of whom died at birth. They were:

  • Elfido Cruz, born Jan 7, 1890 and baptized on January 19, 1890
  • Ricardo Cruz, born August 6, 1894 and baptized on the same day. This leads me to believe that he died the same day or was stillborn. To further support this, no other record is found of him.
  • Benigno Cruz, born June 6, 1895, and baptized on July 21, 1895 (nothing further was found after the 1910 census about Benigno).

At the birth of Delfido, Juan and Juana were living in North Veta, according to the baptismal records. When Ricardo was born they were living in Walsenburg. When Benigno was born, they were living in Arenoso, all in Huerfano County. West out of Walsenburg past the Veterans' Home and Hospital is a sandy creek where Arenoso was at one time.  In Spanish, Arenosomeans sandy creek.  It was near North Veta Cemetery, which also used to be called the Arenoso Cemetery.

Juan B. Cruz applied for homestead property in Township 28S, Huerfano County in 1893 (#072335). However, after I obtained the application, it was clear that it was not the father of Elfido Cruz as this Juan B. Cruz testifies that his family consisted of himself, his wife, and one adopted child. Since Elfido was clearly not an adopted child of Juan, this was not Juan. (In addition, Juan stated he was 40 years old in 1893 when our Juan would have been only 26.) However, the claim application lets us know a little about what must have certainly been how an average Mexican rural family lived like in the area at that time. On the Homestead Proof --Testimony of Witness it is asked, " What improvements are on the land and what is their value?" The answer was:

2 Log Dwellinghouses 2 Rooms 2 Doors 2 Windows, 1 corrall, 3 Water Tanks, 1 water well, 1 Hen house, 1 Stable, 1 Pig House 40 acres fenced with barb wire 2 wires high Value is about $550.00.

Although Juan Bautista never obtained homestead land from the U.S. government, his brothers Preciliano and Nicolas did. On October 4, 1900, both were granted land in Range 66-West, Township 29-S, Section/Block 18 (#075469 and #075468). (See

From what I have learned, Juan probably became a widower sometime after the birth of his third son Benigno and, as was stated earlier, could not take care of his two small children and work also, so he sent them to family to raise.

Juan worked in the coal mines to support his family. The coal industry was starting to boom when Juan and Juana got married and no doubt it had afforded him a chance to get married and raise a family:

Miners earned an average of $3.00 per ten hour shift.... During this period, cowboys in the surrounding ranch country still received $30.00 per month and their board and room.

In the coal mines, accidents and deaths in the mines were common:

Underground mines of this period had a high accident rate. Viewed in terms of risks, the wages do not seem so high. Mines here had pushed down around three-thousand-feet from the openings, where heat, moisture, toxic gasses and an atmosphere filled with coal dust all contributed to the potential for instant destruction or for a lingering death from respiratory troubles. Sedimentary formations such as those that enclose coal seams are subject to sudden rock falls.Murray, pgs. 91 and 101.

On October 6, 1896, J.B. Cruz was killed in the Walsen mine by "Fall of rock," according to the Huerfano County Mining Fatalities list.

This record coincides with the family story that Delfido was an orphan.  It cannot be positively confirmed that this was Juan Bautista Cruz, but at the time, there were only two other men living in the area who could have been J.B. Cruz -- Jose Benito and Juan Benito -- and both of them were listed in later censuses.   Juan Bautista was not.  He was approximately 29 at his death and left behind two orphaned sons.  Nothing has been learned of where he was buried.  However, there's a likelihood that he was buried in North Veta Cemetery (formerly Arenoso) since he possibly lived near there at the time of his death.  In Huerfano County, it is customary for the family to mark and care for the grave site.  Since the family was poor, they would have marked the grave with a wooden cross and in time, it has disintegrated like most markers in Huerfano County cemeteries.

The following information was obtained from the web site:

Mine: WALSEN, a.k.a. Robinson

Location: Highway 160 south of Walsenburg  (actually the mine is just west of Walsenberg)

Owner: Fred Walsen

Operator: Colorado Fuel and Iron

Operation: 1876 -1931 The axe fell in April 1931 when the company announced the closure of the mine. The reason, flooding. It was said that for every ton of coal removed, 12 tons of water were pumped.

Production: 6,000,000 + tons

Notes: Colorado Fuel and Iron officially closed Walsen camp November 9, 1965. Eleven families still lived there and were forced to leave their homes, some after decades of occupancy. They were the Gus Augusts, Tom Sneddens, Albert Nogas, Claude Neals, Mrs. Victoria Alberici, Mike Conders, Glenn Davises, Joe Kovachs, Dorothy Langosh, Alex Maldonados and the Fred Biondis. All but the Augusts moved into Walsenburg. Today, nothing is left of the once lively camp but slag piles and the old powerhouse, which is itself becoming just a memory.

I visited the area in 2001.  At one time there was a teeming mining community.  Today, all buildings are gone except for the powerhouse.  And except for the slag piles, there is no evidence that there was once a coal mine where Juan Bautista lost his life.  The new power grid was built next to the old powerhouse which now serves the Walsenburg community.

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- father of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Sebastian Cruz was born to Jose Luciano Cruz and Barbara Vigil around 1827 in New Mexico, along the Rio Chama, a tributary of the Rio Grande (Rio Arriba County). Although I have not found a baptismal record for Sebastian, his marriage license states he was a native of Chama (not definitive, but probably a small on the Rio Chama), and gives Luciano and Barbara as his parents. In the1845 Mexican census, Sebastian's father, Luciano, was living in Abiquiu, NM (north of Rio Chama) with 3 sons, ages 23, 18 and 06. In the1860 census one brother was older and one was younger than Sebastian which would make him the middle son in 1845. Thus his birth year is established to be around 1827. The 1860 census lists his age as 30, which would give credence to that birth date, understanding that census ages rarely are accurate.

A search of the 1850 New Mexico census of Rio Arriba (and Taos) areas fails to find any of the Cruz family. At one point the family moved from the Abiquiu/Rio Chama (west of the Rio Grande) area in New Mexico area to DesMontes, New Mexico which is east of the Rio Grande and north of Taos. Perhaps this is when they moved. It is definite that they had moved by 1854.

At the approximate age of 27, Sebastian Cruz married Maria Antonia Maes, (about 28), on October 30, 1854. The records are at Nuestra De Los Dolores Catholic Church, Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico. Arroyo Hondo is just north of Taos. The Cruz family is given as residents of DesMontes, which is just east of Arroyo Hondo.

Marriage License of Sebastian Cruz and Maria Antonia Maes Oct 30, 1854

In the parish of Taos on the 30th day of October 1854, I, the parish priest, Antonio Jose Martines, previewed the matrimonial information and orally examined the two witnesses named in the matrimonial claim of Sebastian Crus, single legitimate son of Luciano Crus and Maria Barbara Vigil, native of the parish of Chama and resident of DesMontes of Sangre de Cristo with Maria Antonia Maes, single legitimate daughter of Juan Manuel Maes and Maria Polonia Giron, native of Abiquiu and resident of DesMontes of Sangre de Cristo. Banns to be read three feast days on the 19th, 22nd, and 29th, with previous confession and communion in the presence of the sponsors Jose Ramon Vigil and Irenea Trujillo, residents of the DesMontes with present witnesses Pedro Valdes and Jose Rafael Trujillo, residents of the Plaza of Our Lady of Guadalupe with firm evidence (certainty). (S) Antonio Jose Martines

Padre Antonio Jose Martinez was the parish priest at Ranchos de Taos at the time of the Rio Arriba rebellion in the late 1830's. The rebels "horrified Padre Martinez by burying a coprse at the chance steps of the church." See LeCompte for a full record and a photo of Padre Martinez.

Sebastian and Antonia had at least five children:

  1. Juan Cristoval
     - born July 8, 1856, probably DesMontes, NM

  2. Preciliano
     - born around 1859, probably San Luis Valley, CO

  3.  - married 1st 29 Nov 1884 Maria Carmel Lucero, Walsenburg, CO
     - children:
    1. Dionisia 08 April 1886, Walsenburg, CO
     - married 2nd 13 Nov 1887 Agustina Pacheco, Walsenburg, CO
     - children:
    1. Ursula born 14 April 1889, Walsenburg, COmarriedJose Bertran 27 Nov 1916
    2. Epifanio born 26 February 1891, Arenoso, CO
    3. Emilia born 27 February 1893, Arenoso, COmarriedTeofilo Espinosa 25 Oct 1911
    4. Antonio Jose born 11 October 1895, Rouse, COmarried Juana Trujillo 19 Sep 1921
    5. Ramona born 07 September1898, North Veta, CO
    6. Margarita born 24 February 1901, St. Clara, CO
    7. Juan Francisco born 04 October 1903 (Juan de la Cruz Pineda & Catarina Rodriguez, padrinos)married Antonia Sanchez 08 Oct 1923
    8. Julio born 20 March 1906married Isabel Cordova 09 May 1925
    9. Ma Estela born 28 April 1908, Bear Creek, CO (Juan de la Cruz Pineda & Ma de la Cruz Pineda, padrinos)married Daniel Garcia 02 Oct 1922
    10. Leonardo born 10 December 1910
    11. Secundino born 08 April 1913 (Jose & Fabiana Galvan, padrinos)married Adelaida Medina 28 Dec 1935
     - died 1917, Walsenburg, CO
  4. Nicolas
     - born around 1863, probably San Louis Valley, CO

  5.  - married 11 Jul 1885 Deluvina Arellano, Walsenburg, CO
     - children:
    1. Pedro Jose born 23 Oct 1885 Walsenberg, COmarried Felicitas Gallegos 16 May 1911
    2. Telesfora born 5 Jan 1888, Walsenberg, CO
    3. Genoveva born 9 Apr 1890, Arenoso, COmarried Juan Tafoya born 16 Jul 1906
  6. Maria Juana
     - born 17 November 1864, San Luis Valley, CO
     - married 27 Dec 1894, Jose Pantaleon Garcia

  7. Juan Bautista
     - born around 1867, probably San Luis Valley, Colorado (possibly Huerfano County)
     - married 10 Oct 1888 Juanita Abila Cordova, Walsenburg, CO
     - died 6 Oct 1896 (see above)

Juan C. probably died in childhood as he is not listed in the family after the 1860 census. The dates of his brothers are approximate as I only have census records and they are not reliable.

In September 1855, relatively soon after Barbara (the mother of Francisco, Sebastian, and Mariano) and two of her daughters died, the Cruz family (the brothers, at least one sister, their families, and probably their father Luciano) moved northward from DesMontes. This was sometime between July 1856 and February 1857 when Sebastian would have been about 30 years old. Their destination was the Sangre de Cristo land grant, in the Culebra district of the San Luis Valley in the Territory of New Mexico, which is now Costilla County in Southern Colorado. The date is pretty firm because Sebastian's oldest child was born on the first date at DesMontes and his brother Francisco's son, Cecilio, was born on the latter date at Culebra. The brothers always appeared close together in the census and families tended to move together.

The northward migration goal for the Mexican families in northern New Mexico was the San Luis Valley. The reason for the migration was scarcity of irrigatable land and the "struggle to survive on farms subdivdided among generations of male heirs" (Abbott, p. 40). That was the push. The pullwas the vast land grants (which included the San Luis Valley as part of the Sangre de Cristo grant) issued by the Mexican government to a handful of fortunates whose responsibility was "to settle permanent colonies of loyal citizens in order to hold the territory for Mexico" (Abbott, p. 41). Basically it was free land to live on (but not own).

Although earlier settlers were forced back to New Mexico by Indian raids, permanent settlements were made by the 1850's:

In 1850 the Utas accepted the terms of the United States Treaty, and colonists from New Mexico started coming into the Sangre de Cristo area, settling in small plazas. Since the colonists were either relatives, or had known each other in their villages in New Mexico, they tended to build homes together. In 1842 Juan Manuel Salazar and Julian Gallegos, and two others tried to settle in the area called La Culebra, but the Indians drove them out. However, on June 21, 1851 they returned and founded the town that bears the name of San Luis, in honor of the Fiesta de San Luis which falls on June 21, and is said to be the oldest town in Colorado. Tushar, 1975.

The initial move of the Cruz family around 1851-1854 was from Abiquiu to DesMontes where they settled for at least two to seven years. Although I cannot prove it, I believe that the San Luis Valley was their initial goal. But for some reason, they stayed for a few years in DesMontes (which is on the East Fork of the North Branch of theOld Spanish Trail to San Luis Valley). It could have been for lack of funds, but I believe someone in the family was ill. It was a family that stayed together. There were other Cruz families in the DesMontes area during that time: Salvador, Felipe, Preciliano, Desiderio, Jose Ramon (see Taos baptismal records). How long they stayed (or didn't stay) or their relationship is unknown.

The following is a quote from Abbott (p. 43) and describes their life in the San Luis Valley:

These Hispano pioneers re-created as closely as possible the culture they had left behind.  As with Anglo-americans who moved west, New Mexico's frontiersmen ventured into a new land to build a more prosperous version of the society that they had left behind.  In the San Luis Valley, the earliest settlements such as Costilla were built for protection in the form of a plaza or enclosed square.  Increased population often brought the addition of corrilleras, or terraces of houses flanking the road to the plaza.  A further extension was the "line village," an arrangement adopted in the Rio Arriba whenever the danger from Indian attack seemed small.  Individual farmsteads -- a two- or three-room adobe house, garden, shed, and corral -- strung out like beads along a river or irrigation ditch, fifty or a hundred yards apart.  Each farm extended in a long, narrow strip from the stream into the hills behind, with fields of grain and gardens of beans and chilies close in and with grazing land stretching behind for five or ten miles.

In the 1860 census, the family was enumerated in the La Culebra district of the Territory of New Mexico (now Colorado). Sebastian's occupation was given as a farm laborer and he had a personal estate worth $196 (a value of $3,550 in the year 2000) which probably included a few animals. So he wasn't in great poverty (or wealth) by 1860 standards.

Sebastian's brothers were close by and the occupation of both were farm laborers, but their personal estates were much smaller: Francisco's was $75 and Mariano's was $89. Their father Luciano was not found in this census.

While the family lived in San Luis Valley, Sebastian was a witness for the marriage of Donaciano Pineda, resident of La Culebra, and Maria Benigna Atencio, resident from La Culebra, on 11 Oct 1862 (Our Lady of Guadalupe records).

They were still in San Luis Valley in 1864, when Sebastian and Antonia's daughter Juana Maria was born. But it was getting crowded:

The flow of Hispano population from the Chama Valley and Mora into the San Luis country continued in the next decade, as Anglos in New Mexico joined the competition for scarce land. Costilla and Conejos counties held 4,200 people by 1870. (Abbott, p. 41)
So by 1870 the whole family had moved on to Huerfano County:

North from New Mexico came convoy after convoy of fathers, sons, brothers, and cousins, with families and distant kinsmen, armed men or horses, and burros, cattle, hogs, sheep, and goats in separate herds trailing more than a mile long, with creaking wagons full of household goods struggling to keep pace.  Ninety percent of the 6,400 residents of Las Animas and Huerfano counties in 1870 were either New Mexican natives or the children of New Mexicans. (Quoted directly from Abbott, p. 43.)

The 1870 census gave Butte Valley as the Post Office for the Cruz family, which is in north central Huerfano County, but there were only three post offices in Huerfano County at the time. More than likely they settled at the base of the Spanish Peaks, on or near Bear Creek at the southern part of the county where other Spanish-American settlers had been settling since the 1850's (see Sporleder, p. 15). There Sebastian was a farmer with a farm worth $175 (year 2000 value would be $3,150) and a personal estate value of $100 (year 2000 value would be $1,800). No doubt he sold most of what he owned back in San Luis Valley, except for his animals, before moving his family over the Sangre de Cristo mountains.

The Bear Creek settlement was a few miles southwest of Walsenburg, which was first called "Plaza de los Leones." Louis Sporleder gives a glimpse into the lives of the people of that time in his book Romance of the Spanish Peaks:

Fred Walsen came to the Plaza de los Leones in 1870 and open[ed] a trading post.... Amusements were not wanting in the plaza. Much dancing was done to the music of two violins and a guitar. A little quarrelinig and sometimes fighting enlivening these dances, once in a while ending in tragedy. Cock fights took about the same position as films do today Much gambling was practiced. Mexicans and Indians indulged in "monte," the few Americans preferred poker. (Sporleder, p. 24.)

In the 1880 census Sebastian's occupation was laborer and he and his family were listed in the household of his brother, Francisco who was tending sheep. Next door was their brother Mariano whose occupation was farmer. I assume that Sebastian had run into some hard times because he is living in one brother's household and probably working for the other brother next door. Real estate and personal estate values were not recorded. For what it's worth, a D for divorced was recorded in the marital status column for Francisco's daughter, Dolores, age 17. She was married in 1876, divorced by 1880, but she gave birth to two children, one in 1883 and one in 1887 according to St. Mary's Baptismal records in Walsenburg.

Also given in this census is the location where the family lived which was "Oso's Settlement," where nine families lived. It was probably near Bear Creek since Oso is the Spanish word for bear. From the description in Hiram's story quoted earlier, Oso was near "Sand Arroya." Assuming it was the same as Sand Arroyo and close to the cemetery (aka Chavez Cemetery), Oso was located on Sand Arroyo Road, seven miles southwest of Walsenburg off Highway 160.

In the 1885 census, Sebastian once again was listed as a farmer, presumably owning his own farm, but estate values were not recorded. His brother Mariano lived next door and Francisco lived four doors down, next to his son Cecilio.

Although the 1845 census indicates Sebastian was 18 and potentially born in 1827, his age varies in the census records throughout his life. In 1860 his age was given as 30. In 1870 his age was given as 35 (when he was closer to 43) then in 1880 as 56 (not bad - he was probably 53 then), and in the 1885 census clearly as 78 when he was only around 58!!! Maybe he felt old so he (or his neighbors) told the census taker what age he looked like. Yet the age of his older brother Francisco was given as 58 and Mariano's as 54.

Sebastian Cruz died sometime between 1885 and 1900, as he was not found after the 1885 census. Because his age was given 20 years older than his actual age in the 1885 census, I think that he might have been very ill at the time and may have died soon after the census. It is assumed he died in Huerfano County. Because he lived in Oso's Settlement in 1880, near what is now Chavez cemetery, it is quite possible he was buried there in a grave that has long disintegrated.

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- father of Sebastian Cruz (3)
- grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Jose Luciano Cruz was born around 1799 to Antonio Cruz and Maria Gertrudes Archuleta, at Rio Chama, New Mexico in what is now Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. No record of his birth has been found and no record may exist. In the book, Santa Fe: History of an Ancient City byNoble it is stated that

During the Mexican period only five to eight secular priests remained in New Mexico, far too few to administer sacraments to all the people. No bishop visited New Mexico between 1760 and 1833. Confirmations all but ceased for half a century, baptisms decreased in number, and couples lived together without benefit of marriage. (pp. 88-89)

On October 3, 1821 Luciano married Barbara Vigil:

Jose Luciano Cruz, 22, single son of Antonio Cruz, deceased and Maria Gertrudes Archuleta, espanoles, and residents of Rio Chama, married Maria Barbara Begil, 16, daughter of Aparicio Begil and Nicolasa Sanches, espanoles and residents of the same place. Witnesses Pasgual Martin, 32, Marcos Naranjo, 40, and Jose Miguel Camdibeo, 36.

Abiquiu is located in Rio Arriba County just northwest of Santa Fe between Chama and Santa Fe along US Highway 83 on the banks of the Rio Chama River near the Abiquiu Reservoir and the Santa Fe National Forest.

Jose Luciano Cruz and his family were in the 1845 Spanish and Mexican Colonial census in Abiquiu. He was listed as "D. Luciano Crus," age 58. The "D" was not a first initial, but a common abbreviation for Don, the Spanish word for "Sir." This would indicate (but not prove) that he was a landowner. It was in this census where Luciano and Barbara had seven children: 3 sons, ages 23, 18 and 06, and 4 daughters, ages 17, 14, 9 and 4.

Barbara and Luciano had at least seven children The following lists those seven children, plus any grandchildren and great-grandchildren that I have located.

  1. Francisco Antonio born about 1822, Rio Arriba, NM
    - married Bonafacia Trujillo (probably 1852)
    - children
    1. Maria Manuela born 16 Feb 1853
    2. Jose Dario baptized 30 Mar 1854
    3. Francisco Antonio baptized 26 Mar 1855
    4. Siestro Cecilio baptized Feb 1857
      -married Ma Rosenda Valdez 24 Jan 1878
      1. Juan de Dios born 8 Mar 1879
      2. Manuel Antonio born 1 Jan 1881
      3. Eulalia Valdez-Cruz born 23 Feb 1883
      4. Eduardo born 27 Oct 1885
      5. Delfina born 3 Aug 1888 married Almindro Valdez 14 Jan 1905
      6. Abel born 24 Mar 1891
      7. Maria de la Cruz born 3 May 1892
      8. Joseph Gabriel born 18 Mar 1896
      9. Salomon born 23 Jul 1899
      -buried 05 Mar 1912
    5. Maria Dolores born 15 Aug 1861
      -married Jesus Maria Gallegos 10 Dec 1876 (divorced per 1880 census)
      -children- No father is listed for these children born to Dolores Cruz:
      1. Bernardo de Jesus Cruz born 13 Feb 1883
      2. Agapita Cruz born 20 Sep 1887
    6. Mariana (Ana Maria) born 1867 (1870 Census)
      -married Leonor Deaguero 30 Oct 1881
      NOTE: The marriage record only shows the name "Maria Cruz." So
      there is doubt if it was Mariana and not another one of Francisco
      and Bonafacia's daughters who married Leonor.
      -children- No father is listed for these children born to Mariana Cruz;
      1. Salomon Cruz born 20 Oct 1888
      2. Juan Pedro Cruz born 29 Apr 1891
      3. Palmira Cruz born 25 Jul 1892
      4. Antonio Maria Cruz born 8 Sep 1894
      5. Gaspar Cruz born 18 Jun 1901
      6. Maria Irene Cruz born Nov 1903
      7. Ma Felicitas Cruz born 25 Apr 1906
      8. Jacob Cruz born 25 Apr 1909
    7. Jesus Juan born 1869 (1870 census)
    8. Antonia born 8 Oct 1876 (mother Josefa Pacheco)
      NOTE: Since the oldest son Francisco Antonio was never listed in
      the census and presumed died in childbirth, I am attributing
      this child to Francisco Senior, as I found no other Francisco Cruz
      in Huerfano County.
    9. Rafaela baptized 15 Jun 1876
    10. Maria Rosana born 1872 (1880 census)
      -married 1st Marcelino Duran 28 Jan 1889
      -married 2nd Jose Eleno Sandoval 21 Nov 1910
    11. Elias born 01 Apr 1883
    12. Juan Manuel born 15 Apr 1894

  2. Sebastian born about 1827, Rio Arriba, NM (see above)

  3. Maria Ascencion, baptized 5 Jun 1832 (residents of Plaza de San Antonio), Rio Arriba, NM
    -married 19 March 1859 Henry Samuel Valentine (of New York)

  4. Mariano born about 1839, Rio Arriba, NM
    -married Maria Dorotea Ariano (Arellano) 7 March 1859
    1. Antonio de Jesus born 30 Mar 1860
      -married 1st Ma Encarnacion Gallegos 22 Nov 1883
      -married 2nd Juana Medina 12 Mar 1892
    2. Juana Maria born about 1863/64 (1870/1880 census)
    3. Ma Esquipula born about 1866 (1870 census)
      married Jose Antanasio Martinez 22 Dec 1878
    4. Jose Benito born about 1867 (1870/1880 Census)
      -married Narcisa Duran 26 Oct 1885
      1. Telesforo born 2 Jul 1891
      2. Telesfora born 7 Feb 1894 marriedArminio Pacheco 07 Feb 1912
      3. Elias born 2 Jul 1896 marriedMaria Modesta Pineda 15 Nov 1913
      4. Elvira born 3 Apr 1898 marriedRefugio Gallegos 16 Aug 1917
      5. Sabino born 24 Feb 1900 marriedFlorencia Roybal 09 Apr 1921
      6. Jose Celestino born 7 May 1902 marriedFlorencia Roybal 12 Jan 1929 (This is the same woman his brother married.)
      7. Teresina born 1905 marriedReymundo Vigil 15 Nov 1924
      8. Margarita born 27 Mar 1907 marriedEzequiel Duran 10 Nov 1930
    5. Juan MG born about 1869 (1870 census)
    6. Juana Maria (Maria AP or Apolonia) born 11 Jun 1870
      -married 1st Julian Martinez 10 Jan 1884

    7. -married 2nd Eleanor Deaguero 13 Nov 1886
      (This is the same man her cousin Maria married in 1881.)
    8. Dionisia born 11 Mar 1872
    9. Paula born 4 Jul 1874
      -married 1st Juan Trinidad Pacheco 01 Dec 1888

    10. -married 2nd Arturo Moya 24 Oct 1910
    11. Gavino born 2 Dec 1878 died 6 Jul 1885 smallpox (1885 census)
    12. Alejandro Fidel born 16 Nov 1880married Delfina Vigil 22 Dec 1902died 08 Jun 1910
    13. Maria Elfida born 7 Mar 1883 died 1 Jul 1885 smallpox (1885 census)
    14. Gabino born 4 Apr 1885

  5. Nestora, born about 1840, Rio Arriba, NM
    - child:
    1. Donaciano born4 Oct 1855 (father unknown) marriedMaria Lucia Sanchez 08 Feb 1875
    - died 13 October 1855, DesMontes, NM

  6. Maria Paula born about 1840, Rio Arriba, NM
    - child:
    1. Maria Clara baptized 29 March 1855 (father unknown)
    - died 10 October 1855, DesMontes, NM

  7. Nicolasa de la Cruz born 13 Jul 1842, at Abiquiu, Rio Arriba, NM
    - married 8 January 1858 Juan de la Cruz Maes

Barbara Vigil Cruz died (or was buried on) 17 October 1855 in DesMontes, NM. Her daughter Maria Paula died one week earlier on the 10th at the age of 15. Paula had given birth seven months earlier. It is unknown whether the child survived. Barbara's daughter Nestora gave birth to a son Donaciano on the 4th of October and died nine days later on the 13th. The baby survived to adulthood.

1855 was a very traumatic year for the Cruz family. In March of that year was the birth and likely death of a grandson Francisco Antonio (he was never listed in the census record in his father Francisco's household). Also in March, the birth and possible death of another grandchild, Maria Clara, the daughter of Maria Paula. Then the disastrous month of October, with the deaths of the daughters/sisters Paula on the 10th, Nestora on the 13th and the mother, Barbara, who was only 56 at time, on the 17th.

It's possible there was some type of epidemic and those who were weak succumbed. Perhaps it was just fate - many babies died at birth and as small infants; many mothers died from childbirth or later complications; and mothers with such loss died of broken hearts. I suspect it was Barbara who was the one in ill-health when they had to settle in DesMontes on their trek from Abiquiu to San Luis Valley. If so, the loss of so many of her loved ones at once would have been more than she could bear in her weakened state.

As stated earlier, the family moved on to San Luis Valley within a year or two of these tragic events. Life goes on.

Luciano wasn't found in the 1860 census. In 1870 he was living in Huerfano County Colorado, near his sons: two doors down from Francisco and three from Sebastian. He was listed as a separate family in the census, but in the same dwelling as Manuel Lucero, age 70, and Isabel Lucero, age 30, a housekeeper. I suspect they were family, possible brothers-in-law.

Luciano's age was given as age 99 in 1870, when, according to the 1845 census, he was around 71. Maybe neither he nor anyone really knew his real age and maybe he just looked so old and shriveled that someone told the census taker he must be almost 100. The census indicates that he was blind, so maybe that added to the older age perception.

Luciano Cruz wasn't found after the 1870 census and is presumed to have died between 1870 and 1880 in Huerfano County.

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- father of Jose Luciano Cruz (4)
- grandfather of Sebastian Cruz (3)
- great-grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-great-grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Antonio Joseph was baptized 16 September 1770, son of Francisco de la Cruz and Teresa Romero at Santa Cruz, NM. (Teresa was born to Pedro Romero and Maria Atencia on 15 Oct 1731 at the San Juan Pueblo, NM) His baptismal record gives his middle name as Joseph and not Jose. The only record indicating that Antonio was the father of Luciano was Luciano's marriage record

Jose Luciano Cruz, 22, single son of Antonio Cruz, deceased and Maria Gertrudes Archuleta, espanoles, and residents of Rio Chama...
Antonio's marriage record shows that at the age of 22 he and Gertrudes Archuleta were married in 1792:
30 September 1792 Antonio Jose de la Cruz, son of Francisco de la Cruz and Teresa Romero, deceased, married Maria Gertrudes Archuleta, daughter of Marcos Archuleta and Cathalina Martin, deceased. Witnesses Domingo Balerio and Antonio Torres and Juan Thomas. (Translation from Karen Mitchell.)
Antonio and Gertrudes had three children for which records have been found:
  1. Maria Concepcion born 3 Feb 1794, Rio Chama, NM
  2. Luciano born around 1799, Rio Chama, NM.
  3. Andrea Dorotea born between 1793 and 1802, Rio Chama, NM.
  4. married 13 Nov 1814 Francisco Antonio Gonzales.
Although records state "Rio Chama" as a residence, I'm more inclined to believe that Abiquiu was the closest town and they simply lived on the Rio Chama nearby, and thus were "residents of Rio Chama."

Sometime between 1799 and 1803 Gertrudes died as Antonio remarried in 1803:

8 December 1803 Antonio Jose de la Cruz widower of Maria Gertrudes Archuleta with witnesses of Santiago Tafoya and Jose Antonio Ortega, married Maria Francisca Torres, single daughter of Antonio Torres deceased, and Maria Gertrudes Mestas, with witnesses of Jose de la Cruz Quintana and Lorenzo Valdes, also residents. Padrinos Jose Ysidro Trujillo and Ana Maria Martin.
The marriage record of his son Sebastian in 1821 indicates that Antonio was deceased, so he died sometime between 1803 (his marriage to his second wife Francisca Torres) and 1821 presumeably in Rio Arriba County.

ARCHULETA NOTE: No birth or death record has been found for Maria Gertrudes Archuleta. But according to Milligan, she was born to Nicolas Marcos de Archuleta and Caterina (or Cathalina) Martin. They were married 02 Mar 1759 at Abiquiu, NM. The parent of Nicolas Archuleta were Asencio de Archuleta and Lugarda de Quintana. She died 10 Jun 1749, Santa Cruz, NM.

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- father of Antonio de la Cruz (5)
- grandfather of Jose Luciano Cruz (4)
- great-grandfather of Sebastian Cruz (3)
- great-great-grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-great-great-grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Francisco de la Cruz was born to Sebastian de la Cruz, year unknown, but possibly 1720 if he was 20 when he was married. His mother is unknown. The only record which gives the name of his father is his marriage record.

He married Teresa Romero on 7 October 1743 at San Juan Pueblo, NM. Born to them were the following ten children, with all baptisms recorded at Santa Cruz, NM.

  1. Maria de la Encarnacion baptized 29 March 1746
  2. Juana baptized 30 January 1748
  3. Francisco Antonio baptized 04 September 1750
    -married Maria Francisca Gonzalez
    1. Jose Mariano born 22 Feb 1798
    2. Agustin born 3 Sep 1801
  4. Manuela Gertrudes baptized 08 January 1753
  5. Ysabel baptized 20 April 1755
  6. Maria Guadalupe baptized 02 April 1758
  7. Bartolome baptized 21 (or 31) July 1763
  8. Pedro Antonio baptized 22 December 1765
    -married Maria Barbara Fernandez
    1. Jose Cayetano born 21 Nov 1798
    2. Guillermo born 24 Jun 1801
    3. Antonio Jose born 7 Mar 1804
    4. Maria Antonia 8 Sep 1808
    5. Jose Maria born 20 Aug 1811
    6. Maria Candelaria born 12 Aug 1814
    7. Juan Antonio born 27 Aug 1818
    8. Maria Encarnacion born 1 Apr 1820
    9. Jose Maria born 16 Jul 1823
  9. Antonio Joseph baptized 16 September 1770
Francisco did not live to raise all his children as he diedon 2 January 1771 at Santa Cruz, NM, when Antonio was three months old.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

- father of Francisco de la Cruz (6)
- grandfather of Antonio de la Cruz (5)
- great-grandfather of Jose Luciano Cruz (4)
- great-great-grandfather of Sebastian Cruz (3)
- great-great-great-grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-great-great-great-grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Although the only record we have that Sebastian de la Cruz was the father of Francisco de la Cruz is Francisco's marriage record, because the mother of Francisco was not listed, the proof is not solid that the Sebastian I describe in this section is indeed Francisco's father. Assuming Sebastian was 20 when he was employed by the Spanish government in New Mexico (see below), when Francisco born around 1720 (pure speculation from his marriage date), he would have been 60 years old, an age not unheard of as a biological father. So it's possible.

However, I cannot rule out the possiblity that there is another generation between Sebastian and Francisco, but I have no records to prove it one way or another. Or even that they are related. But because of the similarity of the family names, it is likely it is the same family/lineage.

Very little is known of Sebastian de la Cruz. According to the Spanish documents in Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermin's Attempted Reconquest 1680-1682 by Hackett(Vol. I, pg 116), on 14 Sep 1680, Sebastian de la Cruz was the town "crier" (or announcer of public decrees and documents) for Francisco Xavier, the Secretary of Government and War at Fray Cristobal in southeast New Mexico. This is where the Spaniards had retreated at one point after the initial Pueblo Indian uprising, on their way to safety in El Paso, in what is now Texas.

Fray Angelico Chavez, a noted historian of the Spaniards in the New World, states that Sebastian was also known as Nicolas de la Cruz, herald of the Governor of New Mexico. A Nicolas de la Cruz was also given as a crier to Secretary Xavier in the early Spanish records on 18 October 1681 in San Lorenzo of what is now New Mexico. So it is probably the same person.

Both Nicolas and an unnamed crier (possibly Nicolas/Sebastian also) on the 24th were said to have made the announcements "in a loud and intelligible voice." (Hackett, Volume II pgs. 157 and 182) So he was good at what he did.

The ethnic origin of Sebastian de la Cruz is unknown. However, my suspicions are that he was of Native American origin, probably of the Plains Indians. From the listing of all criers in Hackett's book on the Pueblo Revolt, either no origin was given, or in two cases, Indian, and in one, a Negro. Negros in New Spain was not uncommon asNoble states "When New Spain began importing African slaves to work the mines and do other labor, blacks also began to contribute to the developing genetic pool." (p. 71)

This leads me to believe that the position of town-crier was one that no self-respecting Spaniard would occupy. All the reading I have done indicates that they were a very proud, even haughty people - which inevitable got them into trouble, ultimately with the local Pueblo people when they revolted and overthrew their Spanish oppressors in 1680 for 12 years.

There were Spaniards in Mexico in the 16th century with the surname of "de la Cruz," most noteably, Juan de la Cruz from Catalan, Spain (see Chavez). But there were also a couple of Cruz men living in New Mexico in the 17th century (pg. 23), who were identified in early records as Indian servants (charged with murder, by the way).

According to the History of New Mexico:

Both Spanish settlers and Pueblos survived generations of nomadic Indian raids through alliances that included intermarriage--which lends New Mexico its unique mestizaje culture--and through trade fairs, common by the 1790s from Taos to El Paso. One of the fairs' major functions was to ransom Spanish settlers abucted in Indian raids or to buy servants, usually Indians captured by other Indians. These freed Indians, known as genizaros, were Christianized and could, within three generations, totally shed the stigma of slavery.
Noble (pp. 72-73) also states:
In New Mexico, the term genizaro, used differently in the rest of the Spanish colonial world, meant a full-blooded Indian who had been captured at a young age by warring Plains Indian tribes and sold to Spanish colonists.Genizaros benefitted the colonists economically, for they represented cheap labor in a labor-intensive society. These children, raised as criados (servants) in Spanish households, took the names of their Spanish families and went on to start their own families under those names. Well-to-do and poor families alike had criados. The Franciscan friars advocated the purchase of these young people to bring them to Christianity.

In order to have been a town-crier, especially a good one, Sebastian de la Cruz would have to had learned Spanish at an early age, even from birth. But since I don't believe he was a Spaniard by birth, it is my belief that he was raised in the household of a Spaniard, either captured as a small child in an Indian raid and purchased by the de la Cruz family as a household servant, or his mother was and he was born into a Spanish household.

To further support the idea that Sebastian was of Native American origin, his son Francisco married Teresa Romero at the San Juan, NM pueblo, where Teresa was born. The San Juan pueblo were Indians Christianized by the Spaniards. However, this is not proof in itself as there were 2,915 non-Indians living in San Juan in the 1837 census.

The only record that indicates any origin of this Cruz line is from the marriage license of Luciano Cruz and Barbara Vigil, which states that they were "espanoles", even with Indian heritage. Since the History of New Mexico states that genizaros could lose the slavery stigma within three generations and Luciano was the fourth generation from Sebastian, it is quite feasible that they were considered "espanoles." Especially since Luciano was probably a land owner. As stated earlier, he was listed in the 1845 census as "D. Luciano Cruz" which would show some status and status would mean land ownership.

The fact that Luciano was listed as living in Abiquiu in the 1845 census adds to the possibility (but not proof) of the Cruz' originally being genizaros, as theHistory of New Mexico continues:

They [genizaros] soon became so numerous that the Spanish built them villages at Abiquiu, Santa's Fe's Analco neighborhood, San Miguel del Vado, Ojo Caliente and elsewhere. As the buffer between Spanish and Pueblo settlements and the raiding nomads, genizaros and their descendants, mostly stockmen and farmers, led the last great Hispano territorial expansions. They founded such towns as Las Vegas and Anton Chico, spreading as far north as present-day Antonito and Trinidad, Colorado, into the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and west into east-central Arizona.

Sebastian de la Cruz would have originally lived in Santa Fe, a strictly Spaniard settlement. His son Francisco was married in San Juan, which mentioned previously, was (and still is) an Indian pueblo, but buried by a priest from Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz was another Spanish village as it was originally known as Santa Cruz de la Canada, established by the Spaniards as a secondvilla of the New World in 1695 (Santa Fe as number one). (SeeWilliams, pg. 98). Antonio (son of Francisco) was baptized at (or by a priest of) Santa Cruz. But he and his son Sebastian were both married in Santa Clara, which was (and still is) an Indian pueblo (no non-Indian population was given in the 1837 census for Santa Clara). Santa Juan, Santa Cruz and Santa Clara are all on the Rio Grande, in that order, all within 10 miles of each other. The Rio Chama branches off in a northwesterly direction near San Juan and Santa Cruz. (See AAA atlas.)

Abiquiu (where Sebastian was listed in the 1845 census) is 20 miles upriver on the Rio Chama, a western tributary of the Rio Grande. There is a Catholic church in Abiquiu. However, a note in the LDS Abiquiu records states that the Abiquiu church was built expressly for the Indians who were living in the area, which explains why no Cruz records were found there. Even if the origin was Indian, being "espanoles" would have been important and likely they only associated with churches (and padres) of their ancestors.

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- mother of Delfido Cruz (1)

Juana Avila was bornMay 26, 1874 at Crestones, Huerfano County, to Lorenzo Avila and Rita Valdez. She was baptized at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Walsenburg, CO on September 26, 1874, the godparents being Francisco Valdez and Marulina Gallegos.

The Avila family was not found in the 1880 census, when Juana would have been 5 or 6. But Juanita Cordova, age 5, was listed as the adopted daughter of Victor and Juana Cordova in Las Animas County, CO where her oldest brother Juan Nepomueceno lived at the time. Her sister Gertrudes, age 8, was living with a Deus family in Huerfano County that year. Her brother, Juan Santos, is not found until the 1885 census, living in Huerfano County. I presume that the children were left orphans.

Juana moved back to Huerfano County from Las Animas between 1885 and 1888 (I did not find her or the Cordova family in the 1885 census in Huerfano). Maybe she moved there with the Cordovas. Or it is possible that she met her future husband in Las Animas, then moved to Huerfano County by the time she married. On October 10, 1888, Juana marriedJuan Bautista Cruz, when she was only 14.

When Juana obtained her marriage license from Huerfano County, she listed her name as Juana Cordova, as well as at the baptism of her firstborn. I don't believe she knew her Avila birth name (and parentage) until some time before the birth of her second child when she (or someone) gave her name as Avila at his baptism. She was also listed as an Avila at her third child's baptism.

At the age of 15, Juana gave birth to her first child, Delfido, 15 months after her marriage. Her second child, Ricardo, was born when she was 20. Her third child, Benigno, when she was 21.

From what I have learned, I believe that Juana died around the age of 21, some time between the birth of her third child in 1895 and 1896, when her husband, Juan Bautista Cruz was killed. Maybe she was not in the best of health when she married at 14 and three babies in five years (and possibly other miscarriages as there were almost 4 1/2 years between the first and second child) took its toll on her health. Maybe she died in childbirth or very soon after. Death as a result of childbirth was quite common in the late 19th century, especially in rural areas.

No information has been found on the exact date of her death, nor where she was living when she died, nor where she was buried. She left behind two sons who were soon to become completely orphaned when their father died not too long after their mother did.

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- father of Juana Avila (8)
- grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Lorenzo Avila was born on 24 August 1816 in the territory of Taos, New Mexico to Jose Rafael Abila and Maria Felipa Duran. He was first married at age 23 to Maria Paula Maestas in Taos, NM on 7 October 1839. They had at least four children while living in Arroyo Hondo:

  1. Jose Encarnacion born 25 March 1841
    -married Maria Juana Baca 26 Jul 1873
    -children Agapito born 20 Sep 1877
  2. Juan Nepomuceno, born about 1845 (age 5 in 1850 census)
  3. Jose David, born 18 April 1848 (David, age 7 in 1860 census)
  4. Maria Trinidad, born 4 Jan 1851 (Felipa age 9 in 1860 census)

Then around 1865 Lorenzo Avila (about the age of 49) married Maria Rita Valdez (about 19), and they had at least three children, born at Crestones, Huerfano County, Colorado:

  1. Juan Santos, born March 15, 1868
    married 1st Antonia Sanchez 16 Jan 1890
    1. Juliana born 12 Dec 1891
    2. Tomas Quino born 18 Sep 1894
    3. Lugardo Francisco born 01 Jul 1896
    4. Porfirio born 26 Aug 1898 died 1956
    5. Eufemia born 31 Aug 1900
    -married 2nd Maria Cruz Rodriguez 09 Jan 1906
    -child: Eloy, born 3 Jun 1912 died 4 April 1945 married Julia Cardenas
    -died 1956
  2. Gertrudes, born 9 December 1871married Juan Francisco Garcia 01 Jun 1893
  3. Juana, born 26 May 1874 (see above)

The first census in which I found Lorenzo was in 1850 in Taos County (the Northern Division), New Mexico, where, at the age of 30, he was listed with his first wife, Paula (or Pabla) Martin, age 23. Either the census taker was careless in recording her family name, or information came from neighbors who didn't know as much as they thought they did (Her name was correctly given as Mestas in 1860). Also in the household was their son Juan Nepomuceno, age 5. Their son Jose Encarnacion was not listed, but he was in the next census, and married in 1873. Maybe someone forgot to mention him that year. Both Lorenzo and Paula were listed as "unable to read or write."

In this census, Lorenzo's occupation was given as laborer and no value of real estate given for him. However he lived next door to Santiago Martin with a little farm worth $50 (almost $1,000 in the year 2000). This leads me to believe that Lorenzo owned no land, and worked for his neighbor. And that neighbor could have been his brother-in-law, as on the other side of Lorenzo was Maria Josefa Martin, age 50, as head of household, possibly his mother- in-law (Paula, his wife, was age 23).

By the time of the 1860 census, the Avilas (along with hundreds of other families in Northern New Mexico) had moved to San Luis Valley to the Costilla area in what is now Colorado, also a part of the Sangre de Cristo land grant -- free land to settle on. But Lorenzo was still a farm laborer in 1860, but this time with a personal estate worth $150 (or $2,775in the year 2000), so he was prospering. There were two farmers on each side of him. One, by the name of Thomas Tobens, was an owner of land worth $2,000 and a personal estate worth $3,000 ($37,000 and $55,500 in 2000), and a live-in servant. I imagine he lived in a nice hacienda on a big ranch, and the farmer for which Lorenzo worked.

In 1860, Lorenzo was 49, Maria Paula Mestas (his first wife) was 49, Jose Encarnacion was 16, Juan N. was 13, Felipa was 9, and David was 7. It's strange that Paula aged 26 years in one decade. But since she probably died sometime between 1860 and 1868 (when Lorenzo was likely remarried), it's possible that she was ill by then and looked far beyond her true age. But back in 1850 she may have been very healthy and looked far younger than her age. Her true age is somewhere in between. None of the children had attended school and Lorenzo and Paula could not read or write.

By 1870 Lorenzo had moved on to Huerfano County, to the area of Badito (according to the census). It was there he had a new wife, Rita Valdez (age 24 and Lorenzo age 50 - not bad! he only aged one year in ten and a young wife half his age), and a new family (Juan Santos, age 1), the older children having left home or were deceased. Lorenzo and Rita could not read or write. Lorenzo and Rita probably married around one year prior to their son's birth (assuming no prior pregnancies), approximately in 1868. Again his occupation was listed as laborer in this census, but there were no values listed under the "Real Estate" and "Personal Estate" columns. This may indicate that Lorenzo didn't own the land on which he lived, nor the home nor the contents of the home, nor any livestock. In other words, he was very poor. He was living next door to two farmers, so it is presumed he worked for them. One of the farms next door, which belonged to Thomas Sharpe, is shown on the Huerfano County Historical Map as "Tom Sharp's Buzzard Roost Ranch, and was just south of Malachi and east of Red Wing. Thus it is presumed that is where Lorenzo lived in 1870.

Lorenzo and his second wife were not found in the 1880 census. However, two of his children were found: Gertrudes and Juana.

Gertrudes was living with the Charles Deus family in Huerfano County in1880. There may have been some kind of neighborly closeness between them as in 1870 Charles Deus lived three dwellings from Lorenzo (but a few miles down the road). Mr. Deus was a "stock raiser" and had a farm worth $3,000 ($36,000 in the year 2000), and a personal estate of $7,200 ($87,500), which I presume to be cattle, and so had the means to support Gertrudes. Lorenzo could have also worked for Mr. Deus at one time or another.

As for Juana, in the 1880 census she was listed as Juanita, age 5, the adopted daughter of an older couple (Victor Cordova age 65 and Juana Cordova age 61) who perhaps had never had children of their own or loved children and were willing to raise another child after their own were grown. Victor Cordova was only a laborer, so he wasn't rich like Mr. Deus. Perhaps they were distantly related to the Avilas. And possibly they were deceased by the time she married, nine years later. And when she did marry, she presumed her family name was Cordova, not Avila, because she was raised by the Cordovas. It is doubtful her adoption was a formal one, but can't be ruled out since that area has not been researched.

I did not locate Juan Santos in 1880.

Why Lorenzo's daughters ended up in other homes is unknown. Perhaps his wife died in childbirth of Juana or soon after, but no death record has been found. As a poor laborer, he couldn't have cared for an infant and a 3 and 6 year old and earn a living too. In addition, Lorenzo would have been at least 60 when Juana was born, so his age would have added to the burden of caring for three small children. In that era, a widow with children had to either hire a woman to take care of his children (which he had no money to do), remarry quickly, or give his children to someone who could raise them.

The other possibility is that both Lorenzo and Maria Rita were deceased by 1880 and kind neighbors, friends, and/or family took the children in, albeit splitting them up.

In 1885, a Leo Avila was living in northern Huerfano County as a boarder (no occupation given) with the Mestas family (possibly part of the family of Lorenzo's first wife), along with J.S. Avila, who at age 16, was supporting the two as a teamster (a trucker of sorts - but with horses and a wagon).

Was this Lorenzo, going by the name of Leo, and was J.S. his son Juan Santo? I believe so. But if so, Lorenzo was close to 69, whereas the age of the Leo listed was 54. But census records have been known to be way off before. If so, then Lorenzo had managed to raise Juan Santos (who would have been 11 in 1880) alone until Juan became old enough to support them both. The age for Juan is correct as he would have been 16 or 17 in 1885. The fact that no occupation was given for the senior Avila but one for the junior, only age 16, supports this theory under the assumption that Lorenzo was unable to work due to age.

Or was Leo a cousin or other family relative who raised Juan until he himself became a widow? In that case, Juan Santos also had been placed into another home like his sisters.

Lorenzo is presumed to have died between either 1880 or 1885 and 1900, as he does not appear in the 1900 census.

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-father of Lorenzo Avila (9)
-grandfather of Juana Avila (8)
-great-grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Jose Rafael Abila was born about 1795 (parents unknown). He married Maria Felipa (or Josefa) Duran (born Sep 13, 1801). They were the parents of at least two children:
  1. Lorenzo, born 24 Aug 1816 (see above)
  2. Jose Dolores, born 27 Jan 1818
Both Jose Rafael and Maria Felipa were deceased by the time their son Lorenzo was married on 7 October 1839.

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- mother of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- grandmother of Delfido Cruz (1)

Maria Antonia Maese was baptized 22 January 1826 at the Church of Santo Tomas de Abiquiu, daughter of Juan Maese and Apolonia Giron. Her paternal grandparents were Salvador Maese and Maria Juana Gertrudis Lucero, and maternal grandparents were Nicolas Jiron and Juana Paula Lucero. According to the records, they were living in Ojo Caliente, NM at the time.

The next record I have of her is her marriageat age 28 in 1854 to Luciano Cruz which indicates that her family were residents of DesMontes and originally from Abiquiu. She was rather old for marriage as girls usually were married by the age of 18. It's possible that she was married previously, but the records do not reflect that.

Antonia may have been rather sensitive about her age as in the 1860 census she gave her age as 25, three years younger than she was in 1854 when she got married. Perhaps she was young looking for her age. Then 10 years later in the 1870 census, she was STILL 25. By the 1880, she must have aged quite a bit as her age was given as 50, closer to her actual age of 54. Then five years later in 1885, she really got old as her age was given as 65, when she was only 59. She probably didn't know her actual birth date, but through the years the ages were way off.

Antonia had given birth to at least five children and died sometime after 1885 in Huerfano County, location unknown.

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- father of Antonia Maes (11)
- grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Juan Manuel Maes was born to Salvador Maes and Maria Juana Gertrudis Lucero, year unknown, probably in Rio Arriba, NM. The only records I found for him were the marriage record of his daughter, Antonia, and birth records for eight children. He married Maria Apolonia Jiron, probably in 1822, the year prior to the birth of their first child. The records of the births of most of their children report that they lived in Ojo Caliente, NM, which is around 15 miles northeast of Abiquiu. By 1854, they had moved to DesMontes.

They had the following children, according to Abiquiubaptisms:

  1. Maria Feliciana, born 9 Jun 1823
  2. Juana Paula, born 17 May 1824
  3. Maria Antonia, baptized 22 Jan 1826 (see above)
  4. Reymundo, born 16 February 1833
  5. Ana Teresa, born 16 May 1834
  6. Maria Martina, born 1 Jan 1836
  7. Jose Guadelupe, born 12 Dec 1837
  8. Jose Casimiro, baptized 8 Mar 1840

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- father of Juan Manuel Maes (12)
- grandfather of Antonia Maes (11)
- great-grandfather of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-great grandfather of Delfido Cruz (1)

Salvador Antonio Maes married Maria Manuela Garcia, year unknown. The had the following children (all records from Abiquiu):

  1. Juan Manuel, married Maria Apolonia Jiron (see above)
  2. Jose Ysabel, born 5 Nov 1808, married Maria Juliana Villalpando
  3. Juan Francisco, born 6 Oct 1810
  4. Santiago, married Maria de los Reyes Martin
  5. Vicente Ferrar, married Maria Petrona Alarid

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- mother of Sebastian Cruz (3)
- grandmother of Juan Bautista Cruz (2)
- great-grandmother of Delfido Cruz (1)

Maria Barbara Vigil was born 3 Jul 1799 at Rio Chama, NM. Her life is given in the section on her husband, Sebastian Cruz. I have done no research on my own on her line but have her ancestors from the book by Donald Milligan, which I will give in this section.

PARENTS of Barbara Vigil:

Mathias Aparicio Vigil born 2 Mar 1764, Rio Chama, NM
married 1 Feb 1784 Rio Chama, NM
Nicolasa Sanchez born 28 Dec 1758 Rio Chama, NM

PARENTS of Mathias Aparicio Vigil:

Francisco Montes Vigil de Santilana III
married 12 May 1748 Nambe Pueblo, NM
Maria de Jesus Mestas

PARENTS of Francisco Montes Vigil de Santilana:

Francisco Montes Vigil de Santilana II died 1731/1749 Santa Cruz, NM
Antonia Jiron del Castillo died bef 28 Jun 1744, Santa Cruz, NM

PARENTS of Francisco Montes Vigil de Santilana II:

Francisco Montes Vigil I
born 1665 El Real, Zacatecas, Mexico died 11 Sep 1731 Santa Cruz, NM
Maria Jimenez de Ancizo died 19 Nov 1745 Santa Cruz, NM
PARENTS of Nicolasa Sanchez:
Francisco Sanchez born abt 1731 died aft 9 Apr 1805
married 5 Nov 1754 Rio Chama, NM
Margarita Salazar died bef 9 Apr 1805

PARENTS of Francisco Sanchez:

Joaquin Sanchez born 1695
married 1725 Albuquerque, NM
Manuela Francisca G. Mora born Albuquerque

PARENTS of Margarita Salazar:

Juan Antonio de Salazar
born 23 Sep 1714 Santa Cruz, NM died 27 Oct 1780 Rio Chama, NM
married 2 Jul 1735 Albuquerque, NM
Barbara Muniz de Luna born New Mexico

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Anna Galvan was born August 6, 1896 to Jose Galvan and Fabiana Pacheco. She was baptized September 6, 1896 by Rev. G. Ussel of St. Mary's Catholic Church in Walsenburg, CO. Godparents were Daniel Pacheco and Maria A. Pacheco, who may have been relatives of her mother. At the time, both of Anna's parents were living in the area of La Veta, a small town southwest of Walsenburg, on Highway 12.

The family moved around a lot and I will cover the reasons why I believe they did later, when I discuss her father.

Although Anna was born in Huerfano County, by 1899 the family had moved to Colfax County, New Mexico, where they were listed in the 1900 U.S. Census. This was when Anna was almost 4, and they were living in or near a now ghost town called Catskill (west of Raton).

Catskill, NM at one time was a thriving town whose main sources of income were charcoal - producing three thousand cords of wood daily, and lumber - shipping out 30 to 50 flatcar loads of lumber daily at its peak between 1890 an 1900. By 1902 the town was dying because the logging had wiped out the timber around the area. The boom may be why the family moved there, but I'm not so sure its demise was why they left.

Although baptized with the name Anna, her family was calling her "Annie" by 1900. Annie was short in stature, which is reinforced by the fact that she is listed as age 2 in the 1900 census, born in Aug 1897. One would assume that since month of a birth was given, that a family member gave the census taker her birth information and it should have been correct. But because Annie was so tiny, whoever gave the information thought she was only almost three instead of almost four.

Going by the birth locations of her siblings (as found in Annie's journal), by the following year (1901), the family had moved to Union County, NM. In October 1907 they were back in in Colfax County, near Raton, NM. That November Annie's father obtained homestead landin what is now Harding County, NM which is south and east of Union County.

A postcard photo of Annie and her sister Suzie (of which I was given a copy) is dated July 11, 1910 from Raton, NM, confirming their Raton location.

The family moved to Oakview, in Huerfano County, CO in 1912. This is known by the fact that Annie left a journal of sorts which gave the information:


Mrs Fabiana L. Galvan

Mr. Jose F. Galvan

Raton, N Mex

Came to OakView

9 of Sept, 1912 Colorado


They were close to the Preciliano Cruz family (Delfido's uncle who raised him) because Preciliano's wife, Agustina, and Annie's mother were sisters. The following May after moving to Oakview, Fabiana and Jose Galvan were sponsors or godparents for a child of Preciliano and Agustina Cruz. Delfido must have lived close by or else visited his uncle's place often.

According to Annie and Defido's daughter Elsie, Delfido was dating another girl who was a close friend of Annie's, as the two "chummed" around together, and I assume lived close by each other. The girl went to a dance with Delfido and Annie went along. Delfido and the girl kept dancing away and between dances, Annie would whisper to the girl, "What do you see in that guy?" Delfido then went off to work, presumably in one of the other coal mines where he would have stayed in the coal company boarding house. He would write his girlfriend, but she didn't read or write Spanish, but Annie did. So Annie read his letters to her girlfriend and wrote letters to Delfido for her. The next time he came into town from work, he took his girlfriend out to dance again, and once again, Annie tagged along. Except this time, Delfido ignored his girlfriend and danced with Annie. Evidently after reading Delfido's letters, Annie saw something in him that impressed her. The girlfriend got upset with Annie and accused her of stealing her man from her, claiming that Annie hadn't written what she had asked her to write, but had written her own words to Delfido. Only Annie knows.

Delfido then began courting Annie officially. On October 1913, at the age of 17, Annie married Elfido Cruz (age 23) and had her first child the following year at the age of 18. She went on to have a total of 10 children, losing three sons at birth (all named John), who were never baptized. According to her grand-daughter Charlotte Schendell, Annie was RH negative which was probably the reason for losing the babies.

In the 1920 census, Annie lived two doors away from her grandmother Manuela in Oakview, and six doors away on the other side were her parents and brothers and sisters, who, no doubt were an emotional support for her.

After the birth of six of Annie's children in Oakview (Casi, Del, John 1, "Amarita" or Mary, John 2 and Henry), the family moved to Weldona, Colorado where she had one child (Joe), then on to Montrose, Colorado, where she gave birth to four more children (Max, John 3, and Elsie), the last one in 1932, when she was 36.

One intersting thing in Annie's journal is the notation

Montrose Colo
May 24 1933
enclosed in a heart-like shape with curly-ques at the bottom of the heart. Her father had just been buried 6 days prior to that on 19 May. Is it possible that she had been able to attend her father's funeral in Oakview and she returned to Montrose on that date? Only Annie knows.

In September of 1936, Annie Galvan Cruz, who had been married to her husband for 23 years, became a widow at the age of 40 with five children under the age of 18 to take care of. She was poor and had no life insurance to bury her husband, so she had to put him in the Potter's Field portion of the Cedar Cemetery, with the county paying for the plot. Someone (possibly one of the sons) made a headstone for him out of a slab of rock.

Annie was sure Del had stashed away some money in some bank, so she visited all the banks which were in Montrose at the time and asked about his accounts - which he didn't have.

Times were tough for Annie and her children. In order to keep warm (as there was no money for coal), Henry, the oldest at home, would go around picking up coal which fell off the coal cars and bring it home to burn in the stove. Then Annie got sick and Henry had to work, cook, and care for his siblings and mother. Delfino, Casi and Mary had already left home (but working and living locally), so Henry had to quit school at the age of 13 and go to work to support his mother and two brothers and sister.

During that time a lot happened in Annie's life, both good and bad: her husband died in 1936, leaving her with four children to raise. The three older children married: Casi in 1937, Mary in May of 1938, and Delfino in June of 1938. Then in August of 1938, her mother, Fabiana, died. Annie attended the funeral even though her mother was buried two days later, and Oakview was a hard drive over the mountains. Even though times were hard (remember this was during the Great Depression), Annie was close to her mother and made a way to get to her funeral.

By 1941, World War II was starting to gear up and her son Delfino and his family moved to Oakland, California because of the booming economy and the opportunity for a good job. (Evenutally, all the sons but Henry moved to California. And that was because his car broke down and he couldn't make the trip.) Annie also went to California and was treated for breast cancer in San Leandro. By then the only minor child she had was Elsie.

On August 29, 1942, at the age of 46, Annie applied for her Social Security card. She herself thought she was born in 1897 as it is the year she listed on her application. At the time she was living at 10411 San Leandro Blvd. with her son Delfino in Oakland and working at Elmhurst Cannery at 309 98th St., also in Oakland.

But Annie didn't stay in California. She couldn't drive a car and had to rely on someone to take her every where she needed to go. After World War II (1949 or 1950), she moved back to Montrose, Colorado to live, possibly because she was homesick, possibly because of her ill health. By that time Henry had gotten married (7 Aug 1945 - Annie's Journal) and was in the Army (he was 18 when the United States entered the war).

Annie moved to South 1st Street across from Henry and his new wife Mable's house. She received an allotment from his military pay as he was her sole support. Annie remained in the house on 1st street in Montrose for the rest of her life. At one point, she was taken to Denver for radiation treatment for uterine cancer.

A widow for over 50 years, she never remarried. On July 25, 1989 at the age of 92 - less than two weeks away from her 93rd birthday - Anna Galvan Cruz died of a heart attack after suffering for years from cancer. She had been visiting her daughter Mary in Salt Lake City, UT when she fell and broke her arm and died there while in the hospital (Holy Cross). She is buried in the Cedar Cemetery in Montrose, in section J, Block 25, Lot E SW 1/4. Her headstone was purchased by her children and includes Delfido's name beside hers, even though he is not buried with her. They had wanted to move Delfido along side her, but because of the expense of the move, they decided against it. However, there are several grandchildren of Delfido's buried close by him, most of which are listed on the monument in the Potter's Field. (For some reason, Delfido's name was not included, but he does have the marker.)

According to her obituary, Annie had been a resident of Montrose, Colorado for 63 years - less the time she lived in Oakland.

She enjoyed walking, working in her yard, homemaking, church activities, crocheting, playing cards with her grandchildren and children, going to the Mexican-American Development Association for senior citizen lunch and activities.

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- father of Annie Galvan (15)

Jose Francisco Galvan was born March 6, 1869 to Jose Presiliano Galvan and Maria Abelina Soaso [sic]. He was baptized 28 Mar, 1869 at St. Agustine's Catholic church in Antonito, Colorado. Their residence at the time was Las Conejas. Godparents were Jose Desiderio Sisneros and Maria Juana Ortega. Desiderio may have been a relative of Avelina as her mother was a Sisneros.

His given name is Jose Francisco. Sometimes records have his name as Jose. Sometimes as Francisco. Since Jose was a very common first name (like Maria for females), I will refer to him as Francisco.

The first census in which Francisco appeared was 1870 in Conjeos County, Colorado, where he was one year old, living with his family which included two older brothers, Daniel and Adenago. By 1880the Galvan family had moved from the San Luis Valley to Huerfano County, in the Bear Creek settlement. Bear Creek runs south and west out of Walsenburg.

An interesting note here is that Francisco age 10, and his brothers, Jose Adenago age 11, and Jose Daniel age 12, were working on their father's farm: The two older brothers were herding sheep and Francisco was herding the horses. No mention of school for any of them. But as we will learn later, he did learn to at least write his name.

At some point in his life, probably as a young man, Francisco learned to play the accordian as he was holding one in a photo given to me. That's assuming he wasn't just posing.

In the 1885 Colorado census, his brother Daniel was married, living next door and Francisco, age 16 was working as a laborer. This time his father was a stock raiser, so Francisco was probably still working on his father's farm.

Next door lived a married woman (but without mention of a husband) named Maria M. Gallegos with three daughters: Maria Piedad age 14, Fabiana age 7, and Abelina, age 1. Evidently they were friendly neighbors as two years later (2 Sep 1887) Francisco married the oldest daughter, Piedad in Walsenburg. He was 19 at the time and Piedad was 16. Piedad's father was listed as Antonio Gallegos, and her mother, Manuela Pacheco.

At some point they moved to New Mexico where Francisco became the father of a daughter:

Agustina born June 1894

The 1900 census gives her birth state as New Mexico. This is assumed to be correct as her birth is not recorded in Huerfano County.

Elsie Cruz (Eufamia) remembers hearing her grandfather had been married before he married her grandmother and later divorced the woman and that they had a child, the older half sister of Annie. Divorce wasn't unheard of at the time, but Catholics? If it's true, what happened to Piedad? She was out of the picture by 1895 and Francisco was raising Agustina. And if they were divorced, how did Francisco re-marry in the same church by the same priest? (Gabriel Ussel-per St. Mary's Marriage Records). Unless perhaps Piedad abandoned him and the baby and he divorced her in New Mexico, but told the priest that he was widowed.

Within six months of the birth of his daughter Augustina, Francisco was back in Huerfano County. If he had been divorced, it was sure fast as on January 2, 1895, Jose Francisco Galvan (age 27) marriedFabiana Pacheco (age 18), the sister of Piedad Gallegos - they had the same mother, but different fathers. Was Fabiana a Pacheco or a Gallegos? I'll cover that mystery under Fabiana's name - Laforet.

Francisco and Fabiana were married by Father Gabr Ussel, and both of their residences were listed as North Veta. North Veta was a little town between Walsenburg and LaVeta. Their witnesses were Cornelio Duran and Placida Lopez.

Francisco and Fabiana had eight children together:

  1. Anna, born 06 Aug 1896, Oakview, Huerfano County, CO
  2. Donaciana (Susanna), born 18 Feb 1899, Catskill, New Mexico (1900 census)
    or born 19 Feb 1900 Huerfano County, CO
    -married 1st Daniel Gallegos 30 Dec 1922 (born 1900 died 21 Oct 1930-Annie's Journal)
    -married 2nd Lino Padilla 13 Jul 1931
  3. Jose (Joe), born 09 Jun 1901, Clayton, Union County, NM
    or born 09 Jun 1900
    or born 01 Jun 1901
    or born 09 Jun 1902
    -married Ramona Tenorio 30 Sep 1922
    -died 01 Mar 1976
  4. Pablo (Paul), born 09 Aug 1903, Clayton, Union County, NM
    or born 19 Aug 1903
    -died 12 Sep 1987
  5. Eloy, born 15 Oct 1907, Raton, Colfax County, NM
    or born 12 Mar 1909, Cimmaron, Colfax County, NM
    or born 12 Oct 1907
    -married Ninfa Padilla 20 Apr 1929
    -died Mar 1977 San Leandro, CA
  6. George Orlando (Choches), born 13 Nov 1915, Oakview, Huerfano County, CO
    or born 16 Nov 1909
    -served as PFC Co I 324 Inf WWII
    -died 27 Mar 1972
  7. Maria Pilar, born 08 Jun 1914, Oakview, CO
    -died 08 Jun 1914
  8. Emelia, born 10 February 1918, Oakview, CO
    or born 18 Jul 1918
    -married Jose Eliberto Padilla 28 Sep 1935

By 1900, five years after Francisco and Fabiana were married in Huerfano County, they had moved to Catskill, near Raton, in Colfax County New Mexico, where they were living at the time of the census. And if the information I have is correct, then in 1903 they were living in Union County (now Harding), New Mexico. But let's back up a bit.

Francisco moved around in an era where people generally stayed put. If they moved, they tended to move permanently, or at least for a long time. Why so much moving around? The story goes that he was a cattle rustler and a train robber, and records back up the cattle rustling part. So I assume he was running from the law a lot.

It is said Francisco made his living rustling (stealing) cows and horses. He would also steal the mules (which were used to pull the coal carts up from the mines) from one mining company and sell them to another mining company.

I guess any livestock was fair game to him as the story is told that Francisco and Delfido were going down the road one day and Jose pointed to some cattle asked his son-in-law Delfido which one of those cows he'd like. Delfido pointed one out and Jose reached behind the seat and pulled out his rifle and shot the cow. Jose failed to inform Delfido that the cows were the neighbors, not his. The other family story was that he would shoot a cow and bring it home for them to have something to eat because they were so poor. Maybe. But it sounds like he also shot them for sport.

In 1903, Francisco's criminal activities finally caught up with him. Page one of the October 1903 Huerfano Worldnewspaper has a "District Court Docket" with the following case:

People vs L.A. Hough, Lillard M.
Huggins, Josh Patterson, Jose Galban,
Casimiro Martines and Elfido Montoya.
This is the Rouse cattle stealing case
and there are six informations of like
import filed against these parties.

Henry Huggins is the attorney for Mr.
Hough in these cases. P.W. Sweeney
is the attorney for Patterson. And J.A.
J. Valdez for the balance of the parties.

District Attorney Ross is present to
prosecute for the people and will be as-
sisted by Deputy Prosecutor Hayden.
They were found guilty. On October 13, Francisco 1903 was convicted of Grand Larceny and sentenced to serve three to six years in the Colorado State Penitentiary. On October 15, 1903, Francisco was "inducted" as Prisoner Number 5857. His physical description was given as 5'6 1/2" tall, 161 pounds, "build s heavy", dark complexted Mexican, brown eyes, dark hair with two scars on the left side of his neck and "hair on breast". His occupation is listed as farmer. Both his father (P.A. Galvan) and wife (Fabiana Galvan) were listed as residing in Union County, New Mexico at the time. He could read and write "Mexican," so evidently, although he didn't go to school accoding to census records, he became literate in Spanish somewhere along the line. He gave his signature on the document as Jose Galvan. He was temperate (drank) and smoked. In addition, his "mug" shot was taken and was obtained from the Colorado State Archives. His head and face were shaved and he was dressed in the traditional convict stripes. The picture shows the face of a man who was strong and determined, but ready to serve his time. His physical features, I believe, strongly resemble Native American (with a double chin).

Francisco must have been a model prisoner as on November 7th 1905 his sentence was commuted to 2 1/2 to 6 years and he was released a month later on December 8, 1905. (Technically, he didn't even serve 2 1/2 years, unless they had time off for good behavior back then.)

The day he was convicted and sent to prison, he had company: theRecord of Convicts When Received in the Colorado State Penitentiarylists at least three of the gang who were convicted and arrived at prison the same day: Elfido Montoya, Lillard Huggins and Casimero Martinez. Either the other two of the gang (Hough and Patterson) were listed on the following page or they got off without prison time because they had their own attorneys. The four who I know went to prison all had the same attorney: Valdez.

The other three of the gang who went to the pen together were all from Colorado: Las Animas County, Rouse, and Trindad. Francisco, however, was living in New Mexico at the time. I speculate he was traveling back and forth across the state line, (Las Animas County is on the state border), meeting with the rest of the gang, planning and carrying out their schemes.

There's also a Galvan family story I was told that Francisco robbed the military train which would have been going to Fort Garland, west over the mountains, in Costilla County. Rumor has it that he got away with $75,000 in gold which was destined for the army payroll. Francisco was supposed to have buried the gold on his farm. His brother was thought to have bought thousands of acres of land. With the stolen gold???

I haven't looked for any record of his brothers buying thousands of acres and there is nothing in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) records. Interestingly enough, I did find that an Antonio Galvan, along with nine other men, obtained almost five thousand acres in Sandoval, NM in 1907 (according to the BLM records). But this was from an 1851 Spanish/Mexican land grant, and perhaps they were buying back land that had been stolen from them by the U.S. government. And Francisco never had a brother named Antonio.

Another note is that one of the men in that purchase was a Miguel Gallegos, and in the small cemetery where Jose Francisco is buried, a Miguel Gallegos is also buried. Just a coincidence...?

I was told that Galvans in Huerfano area to this day talk about ways they can find the buried treasure. Problem is, Francisco wasn't living in Huerfano County at the time - he was living in New Mexico. At least one of the gang was living in Huerfano County at the time. Maybe it's buried on his farm. Maybe it's just never been found....

In 1907, two years after getting out of prison, Jose Galvan obtained 160 acres of land in Union County, in what is now Harding County, New Mexico, under the U.S. Homestead Entry Act. It didn't take much money to get land under the Homestead Act (only $1.25 an acre) - but one had to live on it for five years, then file an avadavit stating such (plus some other questions), and pay a fee. At least Fabiana lived on it - Francisco was away on "business" during the required time. His children Jose and Pablo were said to have been born in Clayton, Union County, which is north and east of Harding. Although it is a possibility that the land they had been living on in Union County was indeed the land he filed for a homestead claim, it was near Buyereros, so one would assume if indeed they were living on this land when his sons were born, that family records would indicate that. But then records have been suspect for dates, so they are quite likely suspect for locations. Only until further research is made (i.e. baptismal records for Jose and Pablo) will the truth be uncovered.

It was also by 1907, by the time of the birth of Eloy, that Francisco had moved his family back to Colfax County. In 1910 a photo of his daughters Annie and Suzie was postmarked Raton, sent to Francisco's sister Clarita in Cimarron, both in Colfax County. Eloy stated when he was married that he was born in Cimarron. Annie had in her journal that Eloy was born in Raton. Was Francisco moving around a lot and still running from the law, this time in New Mexico? Don't know. But it isn't beyond anyone's imagination. Then in 1912 he moved moved to Oakview in Huerfano County, which is a definite from Annie's journal.

On 12 Dec 1912, Jose F. and Fabiana Galvan were witnesses to themarriageof Francisco's niece, Maria del Pilar, daughter of his sister, Carmela. A photo was taken of the wedding party and unlike his earlier photo, Francisco is nattily dressed in a suit, with a mustache and a slight wave in his dark hair. He was rather expressionless, but that is typical of early 20th century photos.

The 1920 census gives the family name as "Gabran", but it is unmistakably the same family with
Jose, head, 50
Faviana, wife, 43
Susie, daughter, 21
Jose, son, 19
Pablo, son, 16
Eloy, son 13
Emilia, daughter, 3
Avelina, mother, 76

They lived in the Oakview Coal Camp, six families away from their daughter, Annie; eight doors away from Fabiana's mother; nine doors from Fabiana's cousin Samuel; and probably close to a lot more relatives than I have figured out.

In light of the previous story about Francisco stealing mules from one coal mine and selling them to another, a very interesting note in the 1920 census is Francisco's occupation: he was the stable boss for the coal mine. He was stealing the mules right from underneath their very noses! And he lived across the street from the coal mine to boot. How convenient. Either he was very brazen or very sharp con man - or both.

In 1925 Francisco filed again for homestead land, this time a parcel of 167.47 acres in Huerfano County, in the mountains behind Oakview. The problem with obtaining this land is that the Homestead Entry Act clearly states that under Section 6:

"And be it further enacted, that no individual shall be permitted to acquire title to more than one quarter section under the provisions of this act."

He was able to obtain homestead land in two different places because the land offices were in two different states (Clayton, NM and Pueblo, CO) and records were kept locally. On 25 Mar 1931, Francisco Galvan executed a promisory note to the First National Bank of Walsenburg for six months in the amount of $200 at 12% interest, for 167 47/100 acres - on this land which he obtained (very cheaply) through the Homestead Act. I did not find out if he paid off the loan.

He also purchased other land near the Oakdale mine in Oakview, according to his grandson Henry. At one point he built an adobe home across the road from the mine, about a quarter of a mile back from the road. The house was on one side of the arroyo and the barn was on the other. Henry has a photo of himself and Chris Galvan (son of Joe and Ramona Galvan) standing outside the homestead, near a couple of sapling trees (which are no longer there). The land was lost to the family after Jose's death when the taxes weren't paid. The tax notices may have never been received. It is said that Leno Padilla (second husband of Suzie Galvan) secretly intercepted the tax notices, paid the taxes then later obtained the land on the grounds that he was the one paying the taxes.

Francisco was known to have had a whiskey still, as did many of the residents of Huerfano County, especially during Prohibition. His granddaughter Mary Cruz remembers that he was a "whiskey maker." Since he was not a temperate man (according to his prison record), it fits in quite well with his rebel image.

On May 17, 1933 at the age of 68, Jose Francisco Galvan died in Oakview, Colorado. His death certificate listed his cause of death as dropsey (which is fluid retention) with cardiac complications - or heart disease. He had been seeing Dr. Robert A. Mathew for nine months for his condition.

He was buried in the Oakview cemetery on May 19 which is across from his (former) home (no burial/funeral home records were found). I visited the site in 2001 and even though there is evidence of many graves, Jose's grave and Miguel Gallegos' are the only ones I could find because vandals have destroyed everything they could. Jose's still stands because someone (possibly one of his sons) made a practically indestructible grave marker of iron with his name welded into a plate. The grave site overlooks some of the most beautiful land in Colorado, a valley and rolling hills to the foot of the majestic Spanish Peaks, so tall they still have evidence of snow in the summer.

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- father of Jose Francisco Galvan (16)
- grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Jose Preciliano Galvan was born April 1844 in Chihuahua, Mexico and came to the United States in 1854, according to the1880 census which listed his birth state as Chihuhaua, Mexico and the 1900 census which indicated he had been in the US for 46 years, arriving in 1854. However, the1870 census lists his age as 28, or born in 1842. So take your pick.

Nothing is known of his parents. He may have became a US citizen at one time as in the 1900 census under the "citizenship" column, it listed "na" for "naturalized." In addition, he later obtained U.S. land which required citizenship (or at least have declared an intent to become one).

I did not find any Galvans in New Mexico or Colorado in 1860. It would seem that if Preciliano came with his family as a 10 year old boy, that some remnant would be left of them by then, when he would have been 14. Maybe they all died. Maybe he lost his family back in Mexico and decided to trudge north, tagging along with another family. Maybe they were missed in the census. There were a few Galvan families in the 1850 New Mexico census, (mostly in the Zia Indian Pueblo), however, possibly distantly related, but doubtful his direct family.

Preciliano married Avelina Suaso sometime around 1863, when he was 19 - assuming that the birth of their first child followed within the year. Marriage records were not found in Conejos County (where they were living in 1870), so they may have met and married in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, where Avelina was living in 1850.

Preciliano and Avelina had at least six children:

  1. Maria Juana baptized April 18, 1864, Antonito, Conejos County, CO
  2. Jose Daniel, born around 1865, Conejo County, CO
    -married Silveria Martinez 10 Dec 1884
    1. Lucia born 13 Dec 1885married Amarsante Galvez 29 Oct 1903
    2. Manuela Eva born 11 Jan 1888married Antonio Luis Padilla 01 May 1903
      -child: Eloy born Jan 1904married Refugio Magdalena 24 Feb 1935
      NOTE: The father of Eloy is Lino Padilla, the same name as the man who married Suzie Galvan Gallegos. Whether this is the same man or another with the same name is unknown.
    3. Elfido born 17 Jan 1890
    -died 21 Oct 1930
  3. Jose Adenago, baptized October 16, 1867, Antonito, Conejos County, CO
  4. Jose Francisco, born March 3, 1868, baptized March 28, Antonito, CO (see above)
  5. Maria Clara, born May 4, 1871, Antonito, Conejos County, COmarried Manuel Salazar 11 Sep 1887
  6. Maria Carmel, born around 1875, Colorado
    -child: Maria del Pilar Galvan born 28 Jun 1894
    No father was given in the baptismal records, but in 1912 a "Pelas Chavez" was married to Candido Ortiz and her parents were Rafael Chavez and Carmela Galvan. The clincher that this was Carmela is that Jose F. and Fabiana Galvan were the witnesses.
NOTE: Annie's journal has Carmelita Salazar died 26 Mar 1939 and Clarita Galvan died 26 Jan 1940. Unless the marriage record is incorrect (and that has been known to happen) Clara was the one who married a Salazar and there is no marriage record for Carmela. The family has a photo of Annie and Suzie Galvan which was mailed to Senora Clarita Galvan in Cimarron, NM, postmarked Raton, NM. This backs up Annie's journal that it was Clarita who never married. Then on the other hand, it was Carmela who had a child, with an unnamed father (later to named as Rafael Chavez).

In the 1870 census, Preciliano (age 28) and his family (wife 23, son Daniel 4, son Jose (Adenago) 2 and son Francisco age 1) were living the Las Conejas area (the Post Office on the census records), in Conejos County, Colorado, which is in the San Luis Valley. He was living in the same household as his in-laws, Juan I. and Guadalupe Suaso and was working as a laborer, probably for his father-in-law, who was a farmer.

There are a couple of mysteries here. The first is that Preciliano was listed just as Jose P., with his father-in-law Juan Suaso as the head of the household and all members' last name as Suaso. Was it because the neighbors gave the names and assumed he was a Suaso also? Did his in-laws give the information and forgot that he wasn't a Suaso?

The other mystery is that Avelina was not in the 1870 census, but a female by the name of Louisa was listed after Preciliano, no relationship given (not required in 1870). I can only assume Louisa was really Avelina. Maybe the name was just listed wrong, or it was a nickname. (Hopefully it wasn't another woman, but as well shall see, things weren't always "kosher" with Preciliano.)

Between 1871 (the birth of his daughter, Clara) and the1880 census, Preciliano moved to Huerfano where he lived in Bear Creek. He was a farmer, living next door to his in-laws. This time, his father-in-law Juan Suaso was the laborer. Precilian's age was given as 35 and his wife Abelina's, age 24. Their children were Daniel (12), Adenago (11), Francisco (10), Clara (7), and Carmel (5). Now Abelina must have been a very young looking woman (or vain to give her age as such - if indeed she was the one to give her age to the census taker) as she would have been 12 years old when her oldest son was born if the age 24 is correct (which is presumed it is not). As indicated in the 1870 census, the female listed after Jose P. was a "Louisa", thought to be Avelina as she is the mother given on the baptismal records of the sons and is the wife of Preciliano in later censuses. However, her age was given as 23 in 1870 so she aged only one year in ten. Or so it seems.

In the Colorado 1885 census, Preciliano's in-laws were living on one side of him, and his son, Daniel (who was married by then) between them, and his future daughters-in-law, Piedad and Fabiana (both married his son Francisco) and their family, lived on the other side.

Evidently, Preciliano had moved up in the world for they now had a domestic: Jose Marques was living in the home and his relationship to the family was given as servant. Additional income came from a woman and her two children who were boarders.

Although land ownership was not listed, presumably, Preciliano (then aged 40) owned land as he was listed in the census as a stockraiser. His father-in-law, Juan I. Suaso, and brother-in-law, Pablo Suaso, and Precililano's sons, Daniel (19), Jose F. (16), and Adenago (17), were all listed as laborers, no doubt working on Preciliano's ranch, more or less cowboys. The stock was probably sheep, which I will explain why later. The land they were living on was located at the base of the Spanish Peaks, at the mouth of Bear Creek. This is a known fact as in 1886 his brother-in-law, Pablo Suaso, signed an avidavit with the U.S. government that he had known Estevan Pacheco (the land claimant) for three years and that he lived 300 yards from him and the land Estevan obtained was in the location described.

Also listed in the Galvan household in 1885 was Preciliano's wife, Maria A, age 38, Carmen age 11 and Clara age 14. Carmen wasn't attending school but Clara was.

Preciliano moved around also, as did his son Francisco, as he moved sometime between 1894 (when a grandchild Maria de Pilar was born to his daughter Carmela in Huerfano County - assuming she was still living with her father) and 1899. The 1900 census has him living in Catskill, New Mexico - next door to Francisco. At the age of 56, he was married to a Juanita, who was born March 1865 (or 35), the age of his oldest son. Somewhere along the line one would assume he had been widowed and remarried, but that's not what happened as his wife Avelina was still alive in 1920, as we will see later. In the 1900 census, there were three new children, by Juanita:

  1. Martina, born Dec. 1889, Colorado
  2. Francisco Jr., born Sep 1894, New Mexico (1900 census)
    or Aguilar, CO (St. Mary's Marriage Records)
    -married Beatriz Delgado 17 Nov 1915
    -child: Maria Manuela Odelia born 20 Jan 1917
  3. Maclovia, born Feb 1899, New Mexico
for a total of nine children. I believe Francisco Jr. was born in Colorado (locations can get clouded for people who moved around a lot) but the census is probably correct that Maclovia was born the previous year in New Mexico.

Why did Preciliano name a second, living son Francisco, and a Junior to boot? I have no clue. In the 1870 census, the name of the first Francisco is "Francisco" (no Jose). But in the 1880 census his name was "Jose Francisco." Then in the 1885 census, he was "Jose F." Maybe by the time Francisco, Jr. was born, Preciliano wanted to honor his elder son by naming his firstborn son by his second wife "Francisco."

On November 12, 1900 Preciliano Galvan paid a $16 fee and applied for 1/4 section or 160 acres of homestead land from the U.S. Government in Section 35, Township 20, Range 32E in Harding County, which was then Union County, New Mexico. An interesting note about his "Homestead Affidavit" (which he signed with his mark - or an X - indicating he was illiterate) is that he swore

that I am a native born citizen of the United States
when that previous June his location of birth was given as Chihuahua, Mexico to the census taker.... Of course, there's always the possibility that he didn't speak English and the person who interpreted for him didn't speak much English and I'm sure the Register, Edward Fox, didn't speak any Spanish and there was some confusion. Maybe he just lied to get the land. If so, he was probably a little nervous that they would find out that he wasn't a U.S. Citizen.

Preciliano promised to actually live on the land for five years and on September 28, 1907, he again appeared before the Register in Clayton (had to pay another six bucks), along with four witnesses (Cipriano Garcia, Rube Vigil, Manual Naranjo, and Daniel Ortega) who declared that they knew him and that he had lived on the land for five years.

The "Homestead Proof-Testimony of Claimant" signed by by Preciliano does have some interesting information:

He said he 65 years old, living at P.O. Leon, NM (near Buyeros), that he was anative-born citizen of the United States, born in New Mexico. On October 15, 1900 he started to build his house and finished it October 30, 1900, which was one rock house of two rooms, one reservoir, one corral and one hen house with a value of $150.00. Sounds pretty scrubby, a long way from having a household servant and two boarders in 1885. It also states why I believe in 1885 the herds his sons were tending were sheep:

I was about each year during the months of May, June, and July attending to sheep in order to earn a living.
and no self-respecting cattle-man would have changed his herds to sheep (and vice-versa).

One other inconsistency besides his citizenship was his marital status - along with the inconsistency of his first wife Avelina still living back in Colorado. In June Preciliano had a wife and three children. On this declaration he stated his family consisted of himself only, that he was a widower. One might think there was a tragedy and he lost his three small children and wife between June and October of 1900, except for the fact that Francisco Jr. grew up and later married in Colorado (where he gave the name of his mother as Juanita Martinez).

Since they were living in Colfax County, NM in June, maybe his wife Juanita vehemently disagreed with his idea of getting some land in some place she had never been and refused to drag herself and three small children to what she (possibly) considered some God-forsaken place and said "hasta la vista." Then he lied about him being a widow because he would never admit his family abandoned him. Maybe free 160 acres was a dream he and his son Francsico Sr. had as his land was next to his son's land who had signed papers for his the previous year.

In 1912, his son Francisco (Sr.) moved to Colorado and because they seem to have been close, always next to each other, I'm presuming it was after Preciliano died. Preciliano does not appear in the 1920 census and his son, Francisco, Jr. was married in Huerfano County in 1915, so he had also moved, probably when his older brother did. Thus Preciliano probably died between 1908 and 1912 in Harding County, New Mexico, between the ages of around 64 and 68.

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- mother of Francisco Galvan (16)
- grandmother of Annie Galvan (15)

Maria Avelina Suaso (Abelina Suaso) was born around 1846 to Juan Ysidro Suaso and his wife Guadalupe Cisneros, probably in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. She was four years old in the 1850census in that county.

In the 1860 census, Avelina was listed as age 12 with her mother, father and older brother, Pablo (it seems she only had one sibling). I presume she married around 1863, about a year before the birth of her eldest child, Juana. That would have made Avelina 17 or so at the time. Her eldest child, Juana, was never found in future census records and I assume she died in infancy, or at least by 1870. Maria Juana's birth was recorded in Conejos County, Colorado, but not Avelina and Preciliano's marriage. It is probable that since Avelina was living in New Mexico in 1850, that she met and married Preciliano there, then moved to Conejos County by the time Juana was born, as the distance is not that much - just across the border.

Avelina rapidly had three more children, all sons: Daniel in 1865, Adenago in 1867 and Francisco in 1868, all born in Conejos County.

Avelina gave birth to two more daughters; Clara born in 1871 in Conjejos and Carmel born in 1875, for a total of six children. I did not find a location for Carmel's birth.

In the 1880 census, Avelina and her family were living in Bear Creek in Huerfano County and her age was given as 24 - when she had a 13 year old son in the household! Either someone hadn't a clue to her age, or she wouldn't own up to being 34. But by1885, she, or someone, gave her approximate correct age of 38 to the Colorado census taker.

Avelina must have been close to her parents as they were always living next door in the census records: 1870, 1880, 1885, even though they moved at least once. She probably remained close to her children as well as her son, Daniel, lived next door in 1885. Daniel had married that previous December. One year later in December of 1885, at around 39, Avelina became a grandmother, when Daniel's wife, Silveria, gave birth to a daughter.

Avelina's brother, Pablo was very close to his parents as he was still living with them in 1885 when he would have been 40 years old. I'll say more about him later. In 1894, Avelina's daughter, Carmel, gave birth to a daughter in Huerfano County, without the father being listed in the records.

I presumed Avelina had died when her husband Preciliano had a new wife and family in 1900. However, Avelina was still alive in the1920 U.S. census where she was listed as the mother of her son Jose, and her age was 76, which was probably not too far off. She did not speak English, was a widow and thought her parents were born in Mexico, which was not correct, as we will see. We will probably never know what happened to her marriage to Preciliano, but no doubt it was the younger woman. Preciliano's oldest child by Juanita Martinez was born in December of 1889 when Preciliano would have been 45 and Juanita 34. Avelina was 43, not that much older, but who knows, the causes of failed marriages are many. Maybe because of her closeness to her parents, she refused to move to New Mexico with Preciliano. But if Franciso Jr's statement on his marriage record was accurate (that he was born in Aguilar, Colorado), Preciliano and his "new" wife didn't live that far away, at least for a while.

Avelina probably died some time after 1920. Her granddaughter, Annie Galvan Cruz, knew her grandmother Avelina as her journal had the name of her grandmother as "Abelina Suaso" (and grandfather as "Mr." Galvan). However, the death date of Avelina was not given.

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- father of Avelina Suaso (18)
- grandfather of Francisco Galvan (16)
- great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Juan Ysidro Suaso was born in 1820 in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico to Jose Antonio Suaso and Maria Dolores Lujan. His birth date is firm as he is the only person who I ever came across whose age was consistent throughout all the census records he was in. Juan always knew his correct age and made sure others knew it also. His parents are only known because they were listed as grandparents in the baptismal records of his two children who evidently didn't survive.

He was married, around 1844, at the age of 24, to Maria Guadalupe Sisneros, about the age of 14. Juan was not listed in the 1845 Spanish and Mexican Colonial Census, although he was probably married and the head of a household by that time. He and Guadalupe had at least four children:

  1. Pablo, born around 1845 (1850 census)
    - married Manuela Pacheco
    - children
    1. Esquizel, born 25 Feb 1891married Margarita Martinez 15 May 1922
    2. Rebecca, born 5 Apr 1895married George Gonzales 15 Sep 1920
    3. Placida, born about 1897married Jose Maria Rodarte 12 Mar 1923
    - died 3 Jun 1908
  2. Maria Avelina, born around 1846 (1850 census) (see above)
  3. Juana Juliana, born 1 Nov 1846
  4. Jose Felipe de Jesus, born 16 Feb 1850
Juan Ysidro was living in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico in the 1850 U.S. Census, where he was born. According the the baptismal records of his children, he was living in Ojo Caliente, NM, northeast of Abiquiu. In that census, he was a family man with only two children, Pablo and Avelina. The census listed his occupation as laborer, and no value given for real estate. He probably worked for a farmer nearby, who didn't have much more than he did (One had a farm worth only $110 which is $2,200 in 2000). His age was given as 30 and Guadalupe's as 20. Pablo was 5 and Avelina was 4 at the time.

In 1860 he had moved to the San Luis Valley to the area of Conejos of what is now Colorado, probably for a better chance at life. Conejos is just over the border, north of Rio Arriba county New Mexico. He still didn't own any land in 1860, and he had a person worth of$100 (personal worth wasn't recorded in 1850 so we don't know if he prospered from the move). He was still a laborer on a farm as his occupation was listed as "Farm laborer" and he lived next door to a farmer with a fair-sized spread ($566 or around $10,500 in2000). Manuel Cisneros, age 29, and his family lived next door and was probably his brother-in-law. Juan was 40 years old, Guadalupe was 34 and Pablo's and Avelina's ages were given as 21 and 12 respectively. Pablo appears to have aged 16 years in 10, but he may have been thought to have been much older (and possibly older than 5 in 1850) as I believe he was big in stature for his age. Pablo's son, Esquizel, was married on 15 May 1922 and his wedding photo shows a tall, stocky man. It is not unreasonable to believe that he was built like his father. Thus Pablo was assumed to be older than his actual age because of that fact. I doubt this was true for Avelina as her age age only 12 whereas she was probably closer to 14. Neither Pablo nor Avelina attended school during the past year and the three adults could not read nor write.

Although still living in Conejos in Colorado, by the1870 census, Juan had a little farm worth $150 ($1,875 in 2000) and his personal estate was worth $475 (almost $6,000 in 2000). The personal estate was likely sheep or cattle. He was 50 years old, his wife "Lupe" was 54 (she seemed to have aged 20 years in 10), Pablo was still living with his mom and dad (and working as a laborer), but his age was given as 22, when in 1860 his age was given as 21. Evidently he didn't change much over the 10 years between the censuses and someone went by what what he appeared to be rather than a reference to any established birthdate. As stated under Preciliano and Francisco Galvan's section, Juan was the head of the household in 1870 and his son-in-law Preciliano (who had married his daughter Avelina around seven years earlier) lived with them as well as three grandsons. The education of all the adults in the household was given as "Cannot write" and except for Juan, "Cannot read." A line was marked through it, but I'm not sure what it means as the later census information is inconsistent.

Juan moved to Huerfano County by the 1880 census and was living in Bear Creek, next door to his son-in-law Preciliano and daughter Avelina. Juan was 60 years old, working as a laborer (evidently his move to Huerfano County didn't prosper him) and this time his wife Guadalupe was only one year older at 61. Of course, Pablo was still living with them at the at of 36 - which was about right according to the 1850 census. But also living in the household was a 55 year old male (no relation), with the surname of Padilla (first time too unclear to read). But he wasn't contributing to the household monetarily as his occupation was given as "unemployed."

In 1885 Juan and his wife (and of course, Pablo) were still living next door to their daughter Avelina and her husband Preciliano. Juan's age was 65, "Maria G." was 68, and Pablo had aged to only 44 - and still single. Juan and Pablo were laborers.

Guadalupe died sometime between 1885 and 1900 as Juan was listed as a widow, without her, in the 1900 census. By that time Juan was 80 years old and living in North Veta with Pablo as head of household this time. A lot had happened in the meantime in Pablo's life, but I'll cover that under Manuela Pacheco's section, for reasons that will be obvious at that time.

Juan Ysidro Suaso obtained homestead land in Colorado on 16 May 1888 (Land patent # 3188 COCOAA 072556, BLM). It may have been the land on which he was living with Pablo in 1900.

Juan Ysidro Suaso died sometime after 1900, probably in North Veta.

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- father of Juan Ysidro Suaso (19)
- grandfather of Avelina Suaso (18)
- great-grandfather of Francisco Galvan (16)
- great-great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Jose Antonio Suaso was born 1 Mar 1782. He was married to Maria Dolores Lujan, probably in Rio Arriba, NM. They were parents to the followingchildren:

  1. Juan Ysidro born 1820 (see above)
  2. Jesus (or Jose) Maria born 12 Jan 1822
    -married 1st Maria Paula Archuleta
    1. Antonio Lino born 22 Nov 1853
    2. Jose Candelario born 3 Feb 1856
    -married 2nd Maria Asencion Abeyta
    1. Maria Andrea baptized 6 Mar 1863
    2. Jose Epimenio born 26 Jul 1865
  3. Maria Josefa born 2 Jun 1830
  4. Maria Paula de los Reyes born 17 Apr 1835
    -child: Juan Maria born 15 Jul 1854 (father unknown)
  5. Maria Jorge born 14 Apr 1841
Nothing further is known of Jose Antonio or his wife.

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- father of Jose Antonio Suaso (20)
- grandfather of Juan Ysidro Suaso (19)
- great-grandfather of Avelina Suaso (18)
- great-great-grandfather of Francisco Galvan (16)
- great-great-great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Ysidro Suaso and his wife Maria Catalina Valdes were named as grandparents to the children of their son, Jose Antonio. Their children were:

  1. Juana
    -child: Juan de Jesus born 26 Mar 1800 (father unknown)
    (Ysidro was named as grandfather)
  2. Juan Antonio baptized 2 Jun 1767
  3. Ysidro Antonio baptized 4 Jul 1759
  4. Juan Andres baptized 4 Dec 1772
  5. Jose Miguel baptized 13 Jan 1777
  6. Juan Manuel baptized 13 Jan 1777
  7. Maria Manuela born 2 Nov 1779
  8. Jose Antonio born 1 Mar 1782 (see above)
  9. Maria Guadalupe born 12 Dec 1784
  10. Juan de Prado baptized 6 Jun 1788
  11. Juan Blas born 2 Feb 1790
  12. Jose Ramon born 2 Feb 1790
  13. Maria de Gracia born 15 Dec 1791
    -child: Maria Manuela born 25 Dec 1810 (father unknown)
  14. Jose Ygnacio (Ysidro and Maria Catalina named as grandparents to his children)
    -married Maria Francisca Martin (or Martinez)
    1. Luis
      -married Encarnacion Montano
      1. Maria Rita (12 year old Ute) baptized 3 Aug 1855
        Luis and Encarnacion were padrinos, child was servant of Jose Ygnacio
      2. Jose Eutilano born 4 Oct 1855
      3. Jose Serafino born 27 Aug 1857
      4. Jose Ramon Cipriano born 5 Mar 1860
      5. Maria Piedad born 15 Apr 1862
      6. Maria de Jesus born 17 Feb 1864
      7. Maria Francisca born 15 Jun 1866
    2. Juana Maria born 27 Dec 1822
      -child: Antonio Maria 29 Jun 1845 (father unknown)
    3. Jose Miguel born 3 May 1828
    4. Jesus Maria born 22 Mar 1833
    5. Geronimo born 30 Sep 1835

    6. -married Rufina Martin
      1. Maria Magdalena born 26 Oct 1856
      2. Deciderio born 7 Jan 1862 (or baptized 19 Feb 1862)
      3. Margarita (8 year old Navajo) baptized 20 Oct 1865
        adopted by Geronimo and Rufina, padrinos
    7. Jose Alvino baptized 5 Mar 1840, age 5 days
    8. Maria Rita (6 year old Indian) baptized 9 Aug 1865
      adopted by Jose Ygacio and Maria Francisca, padrinos
    -child by Micaela Duran:
    1. Jose de Jesus born 27 Mar 1828

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- mother of Avelina Suaso (18)
- grandmother of Francisco Galvan (16)
- great-grandmother of Annie Galvan (15)

Guadalupe was born around 1830 to Gabriel Sisneros and Maria Brigida Duran in Ojo Caliente, NM (Rio Arriba). At about the age of 14 she married Juan Ysidro Suaso probably in 1844, a year before her first child, Pablo was born. The following year she may have given birth to two children: Maria Avelina early in 1846 and in November to Juana Juliana, who did not survive. In February of 1850 she gave birth to another son, Jose Felipe de Jesus, who did not survive either.

In the 1850 census (from which her date of birth is derived), Guadalupe was 20 years old, living with her husband and two young children in Rio Arriba, probably near where she was born. Her age was given as 34 in the 1860 census and she was starting to age rapidly, it would seem. Living next door to the family was Manuel Sisneros, whom I believe to be a close relative, but I have no records to prove it. They moved to the San Luis Valley in Colorado by 1870 and she had her son Pablo, daughter Avelina and her family living with them, including three young grandsons. In the 1850 census, she was ten years younger than her husband, Ysidro, but by the 1870 census, she was four years older than him (54 to his 50). Two doors down was a Maria Duran, age 70, and her daughter, Maria age 30, possibly Guadalupe's mother and sister. Next to her lived a Juan Sisneros, relationship unknown, but probably Guadalupe's brother. Sometime in the next decade, they moved to Huerfano County and were living in the Bear Creek Precint in Huerfano County in the 1880 census. Guadalupe was 61 years old to her husband's 60 (remember he was always the consistent one). Her daughter Avelina wasn't living in the same household as hers, but she was living next door, and Guadalupe had at least five of her grandchildren around. In 1885, Guadalupe's age was 65 when her real age was probably closer to 55. She died sometime after that, year unknown.

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- father of Guadalupe Sisneros (22)
- grandfather of Avelina Suaso (18)
- great-grandfather of Francisco Galvan (16)
- great-great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Gabriel Sisneros was born in Rio Arriba, New Mexico on 3 Mar 1793 to Franciso Sisneros and Encarnacion Gutierrez, with Juan Antonio Lujan and Ysidora Romero as his padrinos.

Gabriel was married to Maria Brigida de los Angeles Duran and they had at least three children while living in Ojo Caliente:

  1. Maria Rufina born about 1828, baptized 29 Nov 1830
  2. Guadalupe born about 1830 (see above)
  3. Francisco Antonio born 18 Feb 1836
Gabriel then had another three children by Maria Alvina Maes, also in Ojo Caliente:
  1. Maria Juliana born 21 Dec 1841
  2. Juana Barbara born 19 Jan 1846
  3. Jose Pablo born 12 May 1847
Maria Brigidia de los Angeles was born 2 Oct 1794 to Luis Duran and Maria Antonia Roderiguez.

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- mother of Annie Galvan (15)

Fabiana Laforet was born 1 February 1877 to Joseph Laforet and Maria Manuela Pacheco at North Veta, Huerfano County, and baptized on 1 May 1877 at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Walsenburg, CO. Her godparents were Jose del O Marquez and Maria Ramona Pacheco. Ramona Pacheco was Manuela's sister.

Fabiana's parents were never married. Her granddaughter, Elsie described Fabiana as a beautiful woman with red hair, no doubt an inheritance from her French father. Her hair was wavy, as shown in a photo in 1912. The photo is a wedding picture of Pelas (Maria del Pilar) Chavez, her husband's niece and Fabiana and Francisco were their sponsors. It is evident from the photo that Fabiana was short as Francisco was only 5'6" and the top of her head is lower than his chin, and she probably had heels on.

In the 1880 U.S. census, Fabiana was listed in Huerfano County, Colorado in the household of her grandfather and grandmother, Estevan and Saturnina Pacheco, along with her aunts and uncles and cousins and sister and brother and mother. All were listed as children of Estevan, their last names all being Pacheco, but further research proved this to be untrue. Fabiana's age was an accurate 3 years old.

In the 1885 Colorado census, only the proven younger children of Estaban and his wife were still in his household. However, four houses down lived a Maria M. Gallegos, along with her daughters, Maria P., Fabiana, and Abelina Gallegos. My search found that indeed this was Maria Manuela Pacheco and her children. The oldest daughter, Maria Piedad was born to Manuela Pacheco and Antonio Gallegos in 1871. The marital status of Manuela Gallegos was given as being married, but no Antonio or any Mr.Gallegos was present in the household in the 1885 census for reasons I'll mention later. Fabiana's older sister Maria Piedad (14) was listed as at school that year, but Fabiana, (age given as 7) may not have started school yet as she was listed as cannot read. Their baby sister Abelina was only 1.

The next record of Fabiana was found in 1895, when at the age of almost 18, Fabiana Pacheco married Jose Francisco Galvan on January 14th, with Cornelio Duran and Placida Lopez as witnesses. Both Fabiana and Francisco were from Norte Veta, or North Veta, a small town between Walsenburg and LaVeta. Fabiana believed herself to be a Pacheco, obviously knowing her Pacheco grandparents.

Francisco had been married previously -- to Fabiana's older sister, Piedad -- and had a child, Agustina, by Piedad. Whatever happened to Fabiana's sister is unknown, but Fabiana became Agustina's mother when she married Francisco, or at some point before 1900 as Fabiana is listed as Francisco's wife in the 1900 census, with Agustina as the oldest child.

Fabiana's first child, Anna Galvan, was bornin Huerfano County in 1896, when she was 19. By 1900, the family had moved to New Mexico, near Raton, where they were listed in the census. The census had that her second child, Donaciana (also known as Suzie) age 1 was born in New Mexico. However, other records indicate she was born in Colorado. So they moved between 1899 and 1900. Then within two years, they moved again one county east to Union County, New Mexico. The land on which they lived, I'm sure, is now a part of Harding County, which was created in 1921, partly out of Union County. There she had two more children: Jose in 1901 and Pablo in 1903.

They were probably living on land which her husband, Francisco filed for a land patent from the U.S. Government later in 1907. In order to gain that land, they had to live on it for five years and improve it. That, no doubt, was a great hardship for Fabiana. Francisco couldn't have been around much as he had been getting into trouble and running from the law. Two months after the birth of his son Pablo, Francisco was convicted of Grand Larceny and served two years in the Colorado State Penitentiary.

During that time, Fabiana had to take care of the land and try to make a living on it. No doubt she was helped by her father-in-law, Preciliano, as he always lived next door when they moved around. Fabiana was responsible for taking care of their five children and very likely, Francisco was no where to be found when she gave birth to Pablo.

Francisco was released from prison in December of 1905 and two years later, Fabiana's third son, Eloy, was born in Raton in October. It's unknown whether this birth information is accurate (it came from her daughter, Annie's journal and U.S. Social Security Death Index), but Francisco signed for land in Union/Harding County in December of that year (1907). Either he wasn't living on it when he said he was, or they were just visiting the old neighborhood at the time Fabiana gave birth.

The Galvan family moved back to Huerfano County, to Oakview, in September of 1912 and in December, Francisco and Fabiana were witnesses to Francisco's niece Pelas. Perhaps that fact contributed to their decision to move. The following year, Fabiana's firstborn, Annie, was married. Then Fabiana gave birth to three more children: Maria Pilar in 1914, George in 1916, and Emelia in 1918.

In June of 1914, Fabiana gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Maria Pilar. She was probably named after Francisco's niece, Maria de Pilar, whom they were witnesses for in 1912. No date of birth nor any sponsors were given in the baptismal records. Only the notation of (dead). That fall, in October, Fabiana became a grandmother, at the age of 37 when her daughter Anna gave birth to her oldest son, Casimiro. Since they both lived in Oakview, they lived close by and supported each other in raising their children. They both had sons in 1916 and both gave birth again in 1918. Except this time it was Anna with the sorrow as a mother, and Fabiana as a grandmother, when Anna lost the first of three children who would eventually die at birth. The birth of Fabiana's last child was at age 41.

In the 1920 census, she had a household of six children, a husband and a mother-in-law to care for, although her oldest daughter at home was Suzie, who no doubt helped her mother. She could not read or write, nor could she speak English, but her husband, Francisco did. Another note in the census is that she gave the country of origin of her father as France and that his mother tongue was French. As I will cover below, although her father was French and no doubt spoke French as well as Spanish, he was not born in France. I believe the information about her father came from her mother.

Throughout her life, Fabiana had several different last names attached to her. Her baptismal record gives her name as Fabiana Laforet. In 1880, her name was Fabiana Pacheco, in the household of her grandfather. Even though she was in her mother's Gallegos household in 1885 and her name given as Fabiana Gallegos, I don't think that she ever knew anything about being a Gallegos. When her daughter, Annie was born, Fabiana gave her birth name as Pacheco. At that time, she probably didn't know who was her birth father. But she did know her mother and grandfather's last name, and assumed it was hers. Evidently, Fabiana never saw any record of her baptism (but since so few could read then, it's no surprise). But 18 years later, she gave her name as Laforet when her last three children were born. So some time in the intervening years, she learned who her father really was, either a family secret which eventually surfaced, or maybe not so much a secret as unknown until one day she may have gotten up enough courage to ask her mother about her father, and her mother was candid with her about her origin.

In 1933, at the age of 56, Fabiana became a widow when her husband, Francisco died. She still had two children at home at the time, ages 15 and 17 which she was responsible for. Her son George may have already been working to help take care of her and her husband, as Francisco had been seeing a doctor for his heart for almost a year. But her daughter Anna was close by to help care for her also.

Fabiana outlived her husband by only five years. At the age of 61, shedied on August 14th, 1938 in Oakview, Colorado. Her cause of death was given as organic heart disease. She had not been seeing a doctor for her heart.

There was an obituary written up for her in the local newspaper, the WORLD INDEPENDENT, on August 15:


Fabiana Galvan, about 61, lifelong resident
of Huerfano County, died at her home in
Oakview Sunday morning. She was born at
North Veta. She is survived by four sons,
three daughters, one brother, two sisters,
and 18 grandchildren.

Funeral arrangements will be in the care of
Furphy Brothers' mortuary, and announcements
will be made later.

She was buried with her husband in the Oakview cemetery, on August 16, 1938. In July 2001 I visited the cemetery and there is no evidence of her grave. However, I found a small piece of white marble near Francisco's grave which was clearly a piece of a tombstone - the rest of which is in small pieces scattered around the area, demolished by vandals.

I obtained the morturary sales record from Furphy Brothers indicating that $100 was paid for a casket for Fabiana. On the back of that record was listed the following:

4 Sons - Joe (Mutual), Paul (Oakview), Eloy (Ojo), George (Oakview)

3 Daughters - Mrs. Annie Cruz (Montrose), Susana Padia (Ojo), Emilia Padia (Oakview)

Grandchildren, 18

Brothers 1 - Eziquil Swaso (LaVeta)

Sisters 2 - Mrs. George Gonzales (Trinidad), Plasida Rodart (Morley)

Lived here all her life.
Her two sisters were Rebecca Pacheco and Placida Suaso.

An interesting note on Fabiana's casket -it was paid for by Social Security, but the program was just beginning. Perhaps she was claimed as a dependent by one of her sons and was one of the first claims for burial. Further research is needed.

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- father of Fabiana Laforet (24)
- grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Jose Francisco Laforet was born on 22 Jan 1851 to Juan Crisostomo Laforet and Maria de la Encarnacion Velasquez in San Antonio del Rio Colorado (now Questa, NM in Taos County). Fabiana's mother, Manuela Pacheco, was also born in Rio Colorado and I'm sure she knew the Laforet family. Martina Pacheco who married Jose Antonio Laforet (brother of Juan Crisostomo) was more than likely related to Manuela.

In the 1860 census Jose Francisco was living with his grandparents, Francisco Laforet and Maria Dolores Armenta. His age was given as 11 when his actual age was 9 1/2. His relationship to them was given as their son. However, it was not unusual for a grandchild to live with the empty nest household of their grandparents -- Charlotte Cruz, a Laforet descendent, told me that as child, she was sent to live in the home of her grandmother, Annie Galvan so she would not be alone.

Also living in the Laforet home was Antonio Ab. Laforet, age 8, possibly another grandchild or even a child of Francisco Laforet. (Maria Dolores, although not young, was between 37 and 41, capable of bearing more children.) However, neither the baptismal records for Arroyo Hondo nor Taos (both in which Laforet baptismals are recorded) have a listing for him. It's even possible that Antonio Ab. was a more distantly related child, or even unrelated, which was also not uncommon.

Although I can't prove it, I believe Antonio Ab. was Jose Francisco's cousin Juan Antonio, who was born to Jose Antonio Laforet (son of Francisco) and Maria Martina Pacheco on 10 May 1852 in Rio Colorado. "Ab." may have been a nickname, as he still went by "Antonio A." in the 1880 census, evidence that he settled in Huerfano County. Also, his wife, Claudia Salazar gave birth to four children there according to St Mary's records.

Jose Francisco also moved to Huerfano County. The1885 census has a Jos LaFavier, age 40. (Census takers were notorious for misspellings.) That would make his birth year around 1845, which is fairly close to Jose Francisco LaForet's birth year of 1851 (as old census records go). He was married, living with a Juana, age 34, and his birthplace was listed as France. Jose Francisco Laforet and his father were born in New Mexico and the patriarch Francisco was born, not in France, but in Montreal, Canada. But I don't doubt that they could speak French (or some form of it, as we shall see) so neighbors in Huerfano County may have assumed (or he announced) that Jose Francisco was born in France. In the 1920census, Fabiana, who by then knew who her father was, gave his birth place as France. How much she knew of him (or even knew him at all), no one knows. She, too, assumed his birthplace was, or was told his birthplace was, France.

How the family genes were passed on, no one knows, but there is a resemblence of Jose Francisco's uncle Jose Antonio to my husband Richard Cruz, great-grandson of Fabiana, through her grandson Delfino Cruz. In the summer of 2001 we visited Colorado and New Mexico, stopping in Questa (formerly Rio Colorado) at the little community center just off the highway. When we walked in, Aaron Rael, Jr., who was working behind the counter (they also sold souveniers), seemed to almost recognize Richard, especially when he said we were doing research on his Laforet ancestors. Aaron pointed to an old photo on the counter and said it was Antonio Laforet and although it wasn't dated, it appeared to have been late 19th century. Antonio was white-haired in the photo and would have been 70 in 1900. There was a strong family resemblence between Jose Antonio and Richard. Aaron gave us a copy of the photo and we shared information, including names of the Laforet descendents still living in Questa.

Although it's quite feasible that Jose Antonio visited Huerfano County, and had an encounter with Manuela while visiting his wife's Pacheco relatives, I don't think so as enough evidence points to Jose Francisco being theJoseph on Fabiana's birth record. Although Jose Francisco wasn't in the 1870 census, he may not have yet arrived in Huerfano County and was missed in New Mexico. There is a marriage listed in the Huerfano Countymarriages for Joseph LaFreniure and Juana Mestas in 1891. This sounds like the same couple living together in the 1885 census as husband and wife. Since he was living with a woman not his wife in 1880, it's not hard to believe that he and Manuela had an affair in 1876, long enough for Manuela to know he was the father of her child. In Annie Galvan's journal is the name "Veronize Mestas," born Jan 1923, the same name as the woman Jose married. There may be no relationship at all, but...did Annie know something?

I do not know when Jose Francisco died, but I'm sure he died with his neighbors believing he was born in France.

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- father of Jose Francisco Laforet (25)
- grandfather of Fabiana Laforet (24)
- great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Juan Crisostomo was born 25 Feb 1831 to Francisco Laforet and Maria Dolores Armenta at Desmontes, NM (just south of Rio Colorado). The only census I found him was living with his parents in 1850. His age was given as 20 years old, working as a laborer, probably on his father's farm. Also living in the household was Maria Encarnacion Valesques, age 21, whom I presume he married at some point, as she became the mother of his children (I have not researched the Taos marriages). Juan's sister, Isabel, later married a Valesques, possible a relative.

Juan Crisostomo and Maria Encarnacion were the parents of at least two children:

  1. Jose Francisco born 22 Jan 1851
  2. Maria Concecion baptized 20 Dec 1855
As mentioned in the previous chapter, Jose Francisco was living with his grandparents in 1860. What happened to the rest of the family, I haven't researched. But I do know that Juan Crisostomo and Maria were not living close to his father in 1860. There's a possibility that Juan, Maria, and their daughter were deceased, a reason for Jose Francisco to live with his grandparents. Although that clearly wasn't the case for Antonio Ab., perhaps he came to live with them so Jose Francisco would be raised with a sibling - but pure conjecture.

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- father of Juan Crisostomo Laforet (26)
- grandfather of Jose Francisco Laforet (25)
- great-grandfather of Fabiana Laforet (24)
- great-great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

NOTE: Unless indicated otherwise by references, the following information was taken from the book, THE MOUNTAIN MEN AND THE FUR TRADE OF THE FAR WEST by LeRoy R. Hafen (Glendale, CA, 1968). On pp. 213-218 is the article "Francisco Laforet" written by David J. Weber of San Diego State College. I have put in quotes places where I directly quoted the book.

Francisco (Francois) Laforet was born in Montreal, Canada between 1791 and 1796 (as estimated by the ages given in the 1850 and1860 census records) to Francois Laforet and Maria Feliciana Campbell (according to the baptismal information of his sons). He was a French trapper and was in New Mexico by 1827.

At the age of 34 Francisco married Maria Dolores Armenta (probably around the age of 15, born about 1813) on 25 July 1828 at Taos. She was the daughter of Antonio Elias (or de Leon) Armenta and Maria Ysabel Sanchez (married 10 Dec 1810). Francisco and Dolores were the parents of:

  1. Jose Antonio born 12 April 1829
    - married Martina Pacheco 9 December 1848
    - children
    1. Juan Antonio born 7 May 1852

    2. - married Claudia Salazar
      - children
      1. Luz born 20 Feb 1881
      2. Benardo born 8 Oct 1883
      3. Juan Pedro born 1 Aug 1888
      4. Celestino born 28 Mar 1897 married Clodovia Lucero 04 Oct 1915
    3. Maria Benigna born 18 Nov 1854
    4. Maria Dolores baptized 15 Feb 1857
    5. Jose Narcisco born 17 Apr 1859
    6. Maria Josefa born 31 Oct 1861
  2. Juan Crisostomo (or Cristoval), born28 February 1831 (see above)
  3. Maria Isabel, born July 31, 1835

  4. -married Juan Ignacio Velasquez
    -children, baptized:
    1. Antonio Jose born 29 Mar 1852
    2. Guillermo and Crescencio born 26 Sep 1853
    3. Jose Encarnacion born 25 Mar 1856
    4. Jose Donaciano born 27 Feb 1857
    5. Mara Rosa born 3 Sep 1860
    6. Maria Josefa born 14 Nov 1861
    7. Maria Feliciana born 17 Jan 1865

Francisco went on a fur trapping expedition to California in 1830 with two other men. Through that trip, Francisco and his companions helped open the Old Spanish Trail, connecting New Mexico and California.

Around 1832 he became a Mexican citizen. In 1833 he mortgaged everything he had for 88 pesos (about 88 dollars) and went on another trapping expedition. He didn't start paying back the money until 1835, in beaver furs.

"In 1842, Francisco became one of the first settlers of the new village of San Antonio del Rio Colorado. Known today as Questa, Rio Colorado was then Mexico's northern most outpost in the Rio Grande Valley."

"Francisco settled down as a farmer on two hundred varas of land next to his father-in-law. It was there on the farm that an English-traveler named George Ruxton sought refuge at his house on a cold winter night in 1847. Later Ruxton wrote about his adventure at the French Canadian trapper's home."

"Ruxton pronounced Rio Colorado to be the most miserable town in the area - no high compliment. Further more, the residents were cowardly. When Utes were near, they would 'refuse to leave the shelter of their burrows even to secure their only food.' With all humility, Laforet told Ruxton that 'he and his son entirely supported the people on several occasions by the produce of their rifles, while the maize was lying rotting in the fields.' Laforet's larder was well provisioned: 'the fare in Laforey's house was what might be expected in a hunter's establishment: venison, antelope, and the meat of the carnero cimarron, the Rocky Mountain sheep.' Coffee, however, was missing and Laforet lamented its absence frequently. This, Ruxton supposed, was designed to elicit some coffee from him. Like many mountain men, Laforet had surmounted the problems of his multilingual background and communicated with Ruxton by lapsing into occasional snatches of English."

"I vas nevare tan pauvre as dis time; mais before I vas siempre avec plenty cafe, plenty sucre; mais now, God dam, I got go a Santa Fe, God dam, and mountain men dey come aqui from autre cote, drink all my cafe . . . enfant de Garce, I no live parceque me not sacre Espangnol, mais one Frenchman." (Hafen, pg 196)

Ruxton also wrote about stories he heard about Francisco:

"[One] was an incident involving a certain 'Forey' who, after three days of starving, killed, cooked, and ate a captive Digger squaw, much to the disgust of his companion, the mysterious La Bonte. If this story is based on an incident in Laforet's life, it seems to indicate that he was not held in great esteem among his former colleagues and acquaintances on the Arkansas."

"Not long after Ruxton had left Rio Colorado, the bloody Taos revolt against the new American government had erupted. In the ensuing confusion two former Mountain Men, Harwood and the well-known Mark Head, were murdered by a mob at Rio Colorado. Laforet was suspected of having instigated the deed and of making off with their property. Thus, Harwood's and Mark Head's friends on the Arkansas, according to Ruxton, 'vowed vengeance against him, and swore to have his hair some day'."

They never carried out their vengeance as in the1850 census, Francisco had reached the age of 54, was born in Canada, and could not read or write. His occupation was given as farmer, with a real estate value of $200 (almost $4,000 in 2000). The age of his wife, Maria Dolores Amenta was 41 and she could not could read or write either. Also in the household were their two sons (Jose Antonio age 22 and Juan Cristostomo age 20), two daughters-in-law (Maria Martina age 20 and Maria Encarnacion Velasques 21) and an unknown person, Juan Martin, age 28 (farmer).

By 1860, Francisco's age was 69 (thus the 1791 birth date), aging 15 years in 10. Since he was dead within the year, he very possibly was going downhill fast in his later years. This time, he was a grocer with real estate value of $300 (over $5,500 in 2000) and a personal estate worth $700 (almost $13,000 in 2000). But he wasn't the rich man on the block as Migel Ortiz had a store next door with a real estate value of $1000 ($18,500 in 2000) and a personal estate of $2000 ($37,000 in 2000) which I presume was mostly taken up in merchandise, and Jean Bautiste Beaubien who had a store worth $2000 and contents also valued at $2000.

The town of Rio Colorado probably hasn't changed much as even 140 years later, it is a sleepy little place, where everyone knows everyone, which was probably true in 1860. Maria Dolores' age was given as 50 in 1860, and as mentioned earlier, all the older children were gone with two more children: Jose Francisco age 11 and Anto. Ab., age 8, their grandchildren to raise.

Francisco died within five months of the census just before December 8, 1860. He is listed as being buried on that date in the Our Lady of Sorrows Catholic church records, Arroyo Hondo. His wife's name was given as Maria Dolores Archuleta, the information obviously given to the priest by someone who didn't know all the facts, or either the priest mis-understood what was said to him. It is unknown when Maria Dolores died.

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- mother of Fabiana Laforet (24)
- grandmother of Annie Galvan (15)

Maria Manuela Pacheco was baptized 10 January, 1856 by padre Jesus Lucero from Nuestra Senora de Delores, Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico. Her parents were Estevan Pacheco and Maria Saturnina Espinosa and godparents were Juan Bautista Fabian and Maria Aleasia Espinosa, presumably a relative of her mother's.

She was born at Rio del Colorado. How long she lived there is unknown, but by the 1860 census, her family had moved to the San Luis Valley, and were living in the Culebra Precinct. Manuela was five years old at the time, according to the census (close - she was 4 1/2).

By 1871, the family had moved to Huerfano County, Colorado, the date of the birth of her first child, as recorded in St. Mary's Baptismal records. She was probably living in Cucharas (east of Walsenburg) with her parents, where they were in the 1880 census, and where many Mejicanos lived.

No marriage record has been located for Manuela's marriage to any man. However, it is confirmed through St. Mary's Baptismal recordsthat she gave birth to the following children:

  1. Piedad, born 15 Oct 1871
    -married Jose Francisco Galvan 2 Sep 1887
    -child: Agustina born June 1894
  2. Amanda, born 13 Sep 1873
  3. Fabiana, born 1 Feb 1877
    -married Jose Francisco Galvan 2 Jan 1895
    (see above)
  4. Amando, born 1 Dec 1879
  5. Frailan born 8 Jun 1882
  6. Juana Avelina born 21 Nov 1883
  7. Amando, born 23 Feb 1886
  8. Rebeca, born 25 Jun 1888
  9. Ezequiel, born 25 Feb 1891
  10. Rebecca, born 5 Apr 1895
    -married 15 Sep 1920 George Gonzalez

  11. and one child not recorded in St. Mary's:
  12. Placida, born 1897
    -married Jose Maria Rodarte 12 Mar 1923 (He was a boarder at the Lopez family who lived next door to the Suasos in 1920)

It was on October 5, 1871, at the age of 15, that Manuela gave birth to her first child, Piedad Gallegos. She gave the father's name as Antonio Gallegos. Interestingly, a year later on 10 Nov 1872 an Antonio Gallegos married of Cucharas married a Marcelina Martinez. Maybe Manuela lived in the state of denial as she gave her name as Maria M. Gallegos in the 1885 census. There was a Gallegos family living next door (but without an Antonio - if this was his family I'm sure his wife wouldn't let him near her).

The father of her next child was mysterious. Although the father was named, either it was an incestuous one with her own father or the priest misunderstood who the father was and wrote down her father's name instead of the baby's father's name: on 13 September, 1873, at the age of 17, Manuela gave birth to Amada Pacheco (who probably died as she wasn't listed in later census records), with the father named as Estevan Pacheco.

Whatever the truth, this birth was the beginning of suspect births that were to follow.

Three and one-half years later, on 1 February, 1877, at the age of 21, Manuela gave birth to her third child, Fabiana Laforet, the father being Joseph Lafore, whom I covered previous. It was probably only a short-term relationship, perhaps spring fever as Fabiana was born 9 months after spring.

The records show a three year gap between Fabiana and Manuela's next child: (Jose) Amando Pacheco who was born 1 December 1879 when Manuela was almost 24 (his name was only Amando in the baptismal record, but was given as Jose Amando in the 1880 census). He is presumed deceased by 1885. The father of Amando was not named.

There are three reasons (that I know of) for a father's name not being mentioned, or given as N.N. on a baptismal record:

  • truly unknown;
  • the mother won't (can't?) say who he was; or
  • the father was not baptized Catholic, so the child was considered without a father.
In earlier records, the child would be deemed a natural born child of the mother (whereas a child born in wedlock would be a legitimate child of the mother and father). In later records (i.e. St. Mary's), a N. N. was given in the column under Father. Thus many times a child was born to married parents, but the baptismal record listed only the mother, as if the child were illegitimate. But in Manuela's case, I believe she wasn't married. One, I searched the St. Mary's marriage records from 1875 to 1935 and Manuela was never listed as ever getting married to anyone. Neither is she listed in the Huerfano County marriage records. In addition, fourteen years after the birth of her first child, Manuela was calling herself a Gallegos (even though the father of her first child, Antonio Gallegos married someone else). I would presume she would call herself a Gallegos if she were married to someone else. Besides, there is more proof which I will state shortly why I think the unnamed fathers of her children were not married to her.

In 1880, the census indicates that Manuela was living with her parents, two brothers, three sisters, a niece, and her three children: Pieda (8), Faviana (3), and Jose Amando (6 mo). As I will talk about under her father, even though there were four granchildren in the home, all were given as a son or daughter of Estevan, Manuela's father. She was listed as could not read or write. Her birth state was given as Colorado, but we know that she was born in Rio Colorado, New Mexico - so much for accuracy of state of birth information.

On June 8, 1882, two and one-half years after the birth of Amando, Manuela gave birth again to a child with an unnamed father: Frailan Pacheco, who is presumed to have died in infancy.

Seventeen months after that, Manuela gave birth to Juana Avelina Pacheco on November 21, 1883, again without benefit of a father. Avelina was living in the 1885 census, listed as Avelina Gallegos. Whether she survived to adulthood is unknown.

In the 1885 census, as stated previously, Manuela's family name was given as Gallegos and she was living next to the Galvans and Suasos on one side and a couple doors down on the other were her parents and two sisters and brother. She had a boarder, Julian Tafoya, age 55, living in the household, no doubt to help support her and her children. (I wonder how else she supported herself as no occupation was given for her....?)

Then once again, a little over two years later on February 23, 1886, Manuela gave birth to a fatherless child: another son named Amando. I don't believe the baby survived infancy/childhood either. At the birth of this seventh child, Manuela was 30 years old.

Another two and one-half years later (breast feeding birth control?) Manuela was once again bringing a baby to the priest at St. Mary's to be baptized; a daughter, Rebeca Pacheco, born June 25, 1888. Again, no father listed. I don't believe Rebeca survived childhood (or infancy) either.

With the next child, Manuela broke stride: she named the father, which is why I believe she wasn't married. On February 25, 1891, another two and one-half years later, Manuela gave birth to Ezequiel Suaso, the father being Pablo Suaso. This is where it gets complicated. In the baptismal records the father was originally listed as N.N., then crossed out and the name Pablo Suaso written in. Perhaps the priest had gotten so used to baptizing babies for Manuela and she couldn't the name of the father (or maybe they could have been gringo Protestants), that he wrote N.N. as a reflex only to have Manuela correct him. What is more likely is that after she and Pablo got back together after the birth of their son (and they did), Manuela went back to the priest and confessed that it was Pablo who was the father and the record was changed then. Ezequiel did live to adulthood and was listed in later census records and as the only brother of Fabiana on her mortuary record from Furphy Brothers, Funeral Directors.

Another interesting twist is that (1) Pablo was Manuela's neighbor and (2) he was her daughter's (actually both daughters eventually) uncle by marriage. In 1885, Manuela lived next door to the Galvans - whose son Francisco eventually married first her daughter Piedad in 1887 and then her other daughter Fabiana in 1895. Mrs. Galvan's family (mother of Francisco) was Avelina Suaso and her parents and brother Pablo lived next to them - the father of the child.

In the baby book where Annie recorded information on family and friends births, marriages and deaths (her journal of sorts), she listed Fabiana Galvan as "Mother," Mela Suaso as "Grandmother" and Pablo Suaso as "Grandfather" (Although she never recorded the deaths of her grandparents as she did others.) Evidently Mela stood for Manuela. Although they never married (at least legally), more than likely Manuela had a common-law marriage with Pablo, which is probably what occurred with Mr. Gallegos. Or she did marry Mr. Gallegos, but for whatever reason he left and she wouldn't think of getting a divorce (although it did occur among the families), but had no problem with having children without the benefit of marriage to the fathers.

As we shall see, Manuela's father was a fiddler and no doubt loved music and played for many community events - including at the dance hall. When I visited Huerfano County in 2001, I was was shown the now almost deserted settlement of Cucharas Junction along the Cucharas river. The baptismal records give Cucharas as the residence when Manuela had three of her children, and it's quite likely that she lived there for several other births. There are two buildings barely remaining - the town store and the dance hall (besides one or two small dwellingsy by the river where someone still lives). And since her father loved music, playing at the fiestas, baptisms, marriages, and any other reason for music, I'm sure not only did Manuela love music too, but the dance hall was a great place to meet cute guys....

Four years later after her last, Manuela had her tenth child: another Rebecca (which leads me to believe that the first Rebeca died), born April 5, 1895. Manuela was 39 years old by then - a grandmother herself. Either Rebecca's father was actually Pablo Suaso (but he and Manuela weren't on speaking terms when the baby was born and she refused to name him as father) or he raised another man's child as his own child. In the 1900census, Rebecca was listed as his daughter, and Manuela was actually listed as the wife in the household, age "35" (she was really 44). Also living in the household were Ezequiel (Pablo and Manuela's son) and Juan, Pablo's father. They were living in Precinct No 10 (North Veta). Pablo's occupation was given as a farmer who owned his own farm, but I believe it was land that Juan obtained through homesteading. All the neighbors were farmers too and every one of them including Pablo, were listed as only being employed for 6 months out of the year. Pablo, Manuela and Juan couldn't read or write, and neither could their son Esquizel, age 9, but had attended school for 2 months out of the year.

The 1900 census also reveals one last child evidently born to Manuela and Pablo: Placita, age 3. The St. Mary's Baptismal records have been searched for all Suasos and children of Manuela Pacheco, but none were found with that name. Possibly Manuela decided to skip the church rituals with Placida. Next door to Pablo and Manuela in the 1900 census a Steven Pacheco, age 20 (a widower), and Moses, age 16 his brother. Steven was probably named after Manuela's father, Estevan, although I'm sure it's a relative, but not Manuela's sons. Next door to them, was Luciano Pacheco, who was Manuela's brother.

Pablo died on June 3, 1908 at the approximate of 63, according to the Walsenburg World, June 11, 1908, page 1. Manuela was only 53. In the1920 census, Manuela's age was given as 59, when she was actually 64. Her status was given as widow, and could not speak English. She was living her with son Ezequiel and daughters Rebecca and Placita in Oakview, next door to her nephew (by her sister Ramona) Samuel and his family. In Samuel's household was a Leonore Suaso, age 11, as a boarder, but what relationship to the Suaso household next door, I'm not sure.

The records show that a Pablo Suaso age one, diedof pneumonia on 8 January 1924 and was buried in the Oakview cemetery on 9 January 1924. The parents were not given but with Manuela well over the child-bearing age, the child was not hers (she would have been 68). Very likely it was a child of Esquizel's.

It is unknown when Manuela died. She could be in the 1930 census, but those records have not been released yet. She could have died before that and I suspected as such when I found a cemetery marker for "Antonio Gallegos and Manuela" in the Redwing cemetery, died 3 March 1922. It was possible that she and Antonio got back together in their sunset years but some tragedy befelled them at the same time. I searched for a death certificate for Manuela Pacheco for that date, but none was found. She remains a mystery in her death as she was in her life.

I have come to believe that Manuela came from a dysfunctional family and having eleven children without benefit of matrimony is a sign. But also that two of her sisters, Josefa and Ramona added their share to the number of children born without having the father named. The two sisters had eleven children between them, all but two infants had unknown fathers, and one was a known married man. Their fourth sister, Agustina, had eleven children (all with benefit of a husband). Add Manuela to the mix and the four sisters had a total of thirty-three children between them (not counting potential pregnancies which may have miscarried). The Pacheco sisters were definitely fertile!

But maybe Ramona did have the same father to her children, so I'm not sure about reputation - it may have been intact. She wasmarried in 1874 to Justo Espinosa. A Ramona Pacheco was married to Trineo de Jesus Manzanares in 1870, according the Huerfano County Records, but not in the St. Mary's Records. This could be Manuela's sister, married to a non-baptized Catholic (ex-communicated??) man, which would give reason why none of her seven children had a father listed -- but they were born after she married the Catholic Justo Espinosa, so it was not her (unless they got back together).

But Manuela's sister Josefa was another story. She and Manuela had a lot in common:

In 1876 Josefa Pacheco gave birth to Antonia Pacheco. She gave the father's name as Francisco Cruz. The only problem is that Francisco (brother of Sebastian), was married and had children by his wife before and after the birth of Josefa's child. She may have been loose, but he was unfaithful. Times haven't changed. She had two children with unnamed fathers. Then a Josefa Pacheco also had a child by Jose Lucero, but no marriage license.

One sister, Agustina, didn't follow in her sisters' footsteps. She married a widower Preciliano Cruz (in the church), and went on to have eleven (baptized) children by him.

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- father of Manuela Pacheco (28)
- grandfather of Fabiana Laforet (24)
- great-grandfather of Annie Galvan (15)

Antonio Estevan Pacheco was born in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico around 1825 (according to the 1850 census) to Trioso Pacheco and Juana Lusero (or Lucero) who were listed as abuelas patenor at the baptism of his daughter, Maria Rosalia, in 1854.

Either Estevan was married three times to three women named Saturnina, or else married one time to a woman named Saturnina with triple personalities or who didn't know who her parents were. Or there were three Estevan Pachecos who were married to three women named Saturnina: Saturnina Espinosa, Saturnina Gallegos and Saturnina Lewes. But I think there was only one Estevan.

At age 25, Estevan was married in 1850 to Maria J. Espinosa (16), according to the 1850 census (married within the year), where he was a farmer, probably in Rio Colorado, Taos Territory (their eldest daughter, Teofila was born in Taos within a year or so of that census). They had no children at the time.

Then in 1854, Saturnina's last name was Gallegos when her daughter Maria Rosalia was born to her and Esteban Pacheco. Alexandro Gallegos and Maria Fabiana Martin were given as the abuelas matenor, or the parents of Saturnina. Then when the next five children were born her last name was Espinosa. When her last child was born, she gave her name as Saturnina Lewes, parents unknown.

Estevan and Saturnina were the parents of the following children:

  1. Teofila A., born about 1852, Rio Colorado, NM
  2. Maria Rosalia, baptized Apr 1854, Rio Colorado, NM
  3. Maria Manuela, baptized 10 Jan 1856, Rio Colorado, NM
  4. Maria Senora, born 24 May 1859, Rio Colorado, NM
  5. Maria Ramona, born 1 December 1860, Rio Colorado, NM, married Justo Espinosa 07 Nov 1874
    -children: (N.N. listed for Father of each child)
    1. Samuel Candelaria born 25 Jan 1882
    2. Lucia born 18 Apr 1884
    3. Lucia born 5 Mar 1885
    4. Marcelina born 19 Feb 1886
    5. Frailon born 4 Jul 1888
    6. Casimiro born 4 Mar 1890
    7. Evaristo born 3 Dec 1891
  6. Juan Trinidad, born 2 Apr 1863, Rio Colorado, NM
    -married Paula Cruz 01 Dec 1888
  7. Luciano de Dios, born 12 November 1864, Rio Colorado, NM
    -married Librada Borrego 25 Nov 1882
    1. Francisco, born 1881
    2. Juliana, born 1888
    3. Marcelina, born 1889
    4. Daniell, born 1897
    -died 18 Nov 1938 (buried 22 Nov 1938)
  8. Josefa, born 1869, New Mexico
    1. Antonia Cruz, born 8 Oct 1876 - father Francisco Cruz
    2. Moises Pacheco, born 4 Aug 1886 - father N. N.
    3. Miguela Pacheco, born 29 Apr 1889 - father N. N.
    4. Gorganio Lucero, born 16 Sep 1913 - father Jose Lucero
  9. Agustina, born 29 Aug 1872, Huerfano County, Colorado
    -married Preciliano Cruz 13 Nov 1887
    married Juan de La Cruz Pineda 14 May 1919
    -children (see Preciliano Cruz)
    died 20 March 1955

One note about the birth places of some of the children. In the1860 census, Estevan and his family were clearly living in Culebra, NM, what is now in Colorado. However, Ramona, Juan Trinidad, and Luciano's births in theArroyo Hondo baptismal records clearly state the residence of the family (and their birth) as Rio Colorado, NM, which is now called Questa. Although the exact location of where they lived in Culebra is not clear, it's probably about 20 miles from Questa or Rio Colorado and it's very possible that they lived north of Rio Colorado and possibly never moved, but the boundaries changed. Or they could have moved but not very far, and the priest who visited them for the baptism still considered them residents of Rio Colorado.

As stated above, Estevan (age 32 this time) was living in the Culebra precinct in the 1860 census, married to Saturnina Espinosa (age 26) and the father of two children: Teofila age 8 and Maria Manuela age 5. They had already lost two children and Saturnina was pregnant for Ramona at the time. Estevan's occupation is given as a farm laborer (which most of his neighbors were), no real estate, but with a personal estate of only $49 (worth about $900 in 2000) - the poorest guy in the neighborhood (although the value of three others was only $50 - but two of them owned some land at least).

I didn't find Estevan or his family in 1870, but they had moved to Huerfano County by 1872 because of the record of his youngest daughter's birth there in 1872. In the 1880 census they were living in the 10th precinct in Huerfano County. As mentioned previously, he had a full household with four minor children (Luciano, Josefa, Juan Trinidad and Agustina), two adult children (Manuela and Ramona) and their four children. Ramona was definitely married six years prior, but she was back home was Manuela who I suspect never left. There is a one year old female child whose name I can't figure out, but I suspect it was Ramona's. The strange thing is that all the grandchildren were named as children of Estevan and Saturnina. I've always suspected it was because Estevan didn't want people to know his business, especially since his daughters kept having children unconventionally.

On the 24th of August 1886, Antonio Estevan Pacheco paid $53.15 for 42.52 acres ($1.25 per acre) of government homestead land, Application # 4250. The land co-ordinates were Range 67, Twp 30S, Section 4, NE quarter and NW quarter. From the Huerfano County General Highway Map, the land is located at the base of the Spanish Peaks, near the mouth of Bear Creek.

Esteban declared that

in April 1883 he commenced to build his house on the land and in the month following finished and established actual residence with his family in the same and has so contiously resided herein with his family from that to the present time continuously, not absenting himself therefore for any period or period whatever excepting to come to town to buy his provisions, or attend to other business he might have never occupying more than one day and that he has lived, eaten and slept on the land every day during that period - coming to town in the morning and returning in the evening, and that during said time and when so absent his family remained, resided, eat and slept on the land; further that claimant is a poor person, has acted in good faith in taking up this lands and has improved the same as much as his limited circumstances would permit.
Antonio signed with his mark, thus evidence that he could not write. What makes it very interesting is the one of his witnesses was Pablos Suaso, who, in 1890, had a child by Estevan's daughter Manuela. In his statement, Pablo swore that
Q. How long have you know the claim of Antonio Esteban Pacheco?
A. About three years.

Q. How often have you visited the claim during that time?
A. My house being only 300 yards from his, nearly everyday.

Q. Can you see his house from your own?
A. Yes Sir-

Q. Has he lived continuously on the land with his family from May 1883 to the present time?
A. Yes Sir-

Q. How do you know this?
A. For I saw him about nearly every day since that time.

Q. Did you see Mr. Pacheco build his home on his claim?
A. I did. I helped him at it.

Q. Would he be away from his home at nights?
A. No he always returned as well as I can remember in the evenings.

Q. Has he acted in good faith in taking up this claim?
A. I know he has, having no other means for support.

Q. Has claimant taken up this land for his own benefit or for the benefit of anybody else?
A. For his own benefit.

Pablo his X mark Suaso
Knowing that Estevan had several daughters and Pablo was to become the father of at least one of Estevan's grandchildren, Pablo's statement that he visited them "nearly every day" makes one giggle, knowing what he was up to.

Pablo also signed another statement that he thought Estevan was fifty years old (he was 60) and had built a

log house, having 2 rooms, 1 - 10' x 12' and the other 12' x 12', another log house 9' x '9 each with dirt floors and roof having 1 door and 1 window...
that it was worth $100, was using the land for agricultural purposes and had cultivated
about 7 acres, in 1883 he only broke about 2 acres, in 1884 he he raised about 200 lbs of potatoes, in 1885 about 30 bushels of wheat and 4 tons of hay and this year he has planted about 2 bushels of wheat, some beans and corn.
This information from Pablo gives a little insight into Estevan's life. The 1885 census stated he was a fiddler, which he evidently considered himself to be, yet had to be a farmer to feed his family. It's obvious that they couldn't eat hay so probably had animals and/or sold it for cash.

One distinguishing feature about Estevan is that he was musically talented and earned his living from his abilities. In the 1880 census his occupation was listed as musician and in 1885 as fiddler. He must have been pretty good to make money from it, probably playing at the local festivities, especially weddings.

By 1885, either the older daughters had moved out or Estevan kicked them out as they were no longer living in his home, but Manuela was just four doors down from them.

I presume Saturnina died sometime between the 1885 census and 1900 as on 12 Oct 1900, Antonio Estevan married Librado Arellano. Both were from North Veta where his daughter Manuela was living that year. Names of parents were not given, which is an indication that the couple were older - 75 years old in the case of Estevan.

It is unknown when Estevan died, but he probably died happy with a new bride.

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Clyne, Rick J. Coal People: Life in Southern Colorado's Company Towns, 1890-1930, Colorado: University Press of Colorado,July 2000

1910 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Cameron Precinct #27, Page 155, ED 81, Household 66, line 17. California State Library, Sutro Library, San Francisco microfilm #120.

1920 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Oakview Precinct #20, Page 177, ED 90, Household 79. LDS Film 1820165.


1870 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, The Valley of the Cucharas River and Tributaries, Post Office: Butte Valley, Colorado, Page 17, Household 167, line 12. LDS Film 0545594.

State of Colorado Standard Certificate of Death. File Number 9582. Filed 30 Sep 1936.

Montrose Daily Press Monday September 28, 1936, p. 1.

1860 U.S. Census Taos County, Territory of New Mexico, Culebra Precinct, Post Office: Fernando de Taos, Page 316, Household 1927, Line 10. LDS Film 0803715.

Arenoso information from Karen Mitchell, Huerfano County Genelogical website coordinator.

1880 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Precinct #10, Page 33, ED 60, Household 255, line 19 (Base Oso's Settlement). LDS Film 1254090.

Albright, Zella Rae. One Man's Family, The Life of Hiram Vasquez. Colorado: Z.M. Albright. 1984, pp. 127, 128.

1885 Colorado Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Page 37, ED 2, Household 393, line 25. LDS Film 929068.

St. Mary's Baptismal Records, Walsenburg, Colorado, 1870-1901. LDS Film 2791.

Murray, Robert A. Las Animas, Huerfano County, and Custer: Three Colorado Counties on a Cultural Frontier: A History of the Raton Basin.Denver: Denver State Office Bureau of Land Management. 1979.


1845 Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses of New Mexico, 1790, 1823, 1845.Translated and compiled by Virginia L. Olmsted. Albuquerque: New Mexico Genealogy Society. c 1975, p. 201, Frame 400.

Translated by Shalane J. Sheley-Cruz and Karen Mitchell.

LeCompte, Janet. Rebellion in Rio Arriba. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 1985. See pages 126-129.

Preciliano was buried in the Laguna Cemetery, Huerfano County. Information from Huerfano County Genealogical website located at

St. Mary's Church Marriage Records 1871-1957, Walsenburg, CO. LDS Film 2795.

Our Lady of Guadalupe Baptismal Registry. Conejos Colorado 1861-1868. Published by Genealogical Society of Hispanic America, p. 129. Information from Arleen Aguirre.

Baptismal records at our Lady of Sorrows, 1852-1869, Arroyo Hondo, NM LDS Film 16622.

La Merced Sangre de Cristo : El Valley de San Luis, Colorado, 1980, The Sangre de Cristo Land Grant. Chambra, CO: The Land Rights Council. c. 1980.

See map on page 7 of Ron Kessler's Re-Tracing the Old Spanish Trail-North Branch. Monte Vista, CO: Adobe Village Press. 1995.

Tushar, Olibama Lopez. The People of El Valle. A History of the Spanish Colonials in the San Luis Valley Pueblo, CO: El Escritorio. c. 1975.

Abbott, Carl, Stephen J. Leonard, David McComb. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State. Colorado Associated University Press. 1994.

Sporleder, Louis, Romance of the Spanish Peaks. Pueblo, CO: Riverside Printing Company. 1989.

From "The Inflation Calculator,"


Luciano's age was given as 22 at his marriage in 1821. Santa Clara Mission Marriages 1726-1830 LDS Film 0016975.

Santa Clara Mission Marriages 1726-1830 LDS Film 0016975.

Noble, David Grant, ed. Santa Fe: History of an Ancient City. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press. 1989.

Marriage records at our Lady of Sorrows Church, 1852-1869, Arroyo Hondo, NM LDS Film 16622.

Information from Maria Martinez, San Pablo, Colorado, 2001, researcher of the Vigil line.

David Salazar's Abiquiu Baptismal Book, GSHA. From Karen Mitchell.

Nuestra Senora De los Dolores Church, Arroyo Hondo, NM baptismal records 1852-1869. LDS Film 0016622.

Nuestra Senora De Los Dolores Church, Arroyo Hondo, NM. From records extracted by Maria Clara Martinez. LDS Film 0016622.

The baptismal records for Francisco's first five children are from Arroyo Hondo, Our Lady of Sorrows Church. The baptismal records for the remaining four children (Maria Rosana excepted) are from Walsenburg, St. Mary's Church. And although a range of birthdates from 1853 to 1894, is suspect, the records do reflect that Bonafacia Trujillo was the mother in both years. It would seem that the gap between 1861 and 1876 is a result of records not found (by me) or lost to posterity.

Huerfano County Genealogical Web Site. St. Mary's South Cemetery.

The baptismal records for Mariano's first child are from Arroyo Hondo, Our Lady of Sorrows Church. The baptismal records for the remaining children are from Walsenburg, St. Mary's Church. The gap between 1860 and 1870 is probably because of lost or never found records.

Birth date extrapolated from Our Lady of Sorrows Church, Arroyo Hondo, NM burial Records (1852-1869 LDS Film 16622) indicating that she died at age 15 in 1855.

Our Lady of Sorrows Church, Arroyo Hondo, NM burial records (1852-1869) LDS Film 16622.

Santa Clara Mission Marriage Records 1726-1830 LDS Film 0016975.

Santa Clara Marriage Records Santa Clara, NM. LDS Film 0016975. Exact record is:

"11-13-1814 Francisco Antonio Gonzales son of Marcelino Gonzales and Ana Maria Rodriguez residents of Rio Chama married Andrea Dorotea Cruz daughter of Antonio Jose Cruz and Maria Gertrudes Archuleta, deceased, also residents of Rio Chama. Witnesses Bartolome Vegil and Miguel Lucero." Translation provided by Karen Mitchell.

Santa Cruz Holy Cross Church Records, Marriages 1726-1869 Santa Cruz, NM. LDS Microfilm 0016972.

San Juan de los Caballeros Church Records 1726-1956. LDS film 0016982.

Santa Cruz Holy Cross Church Baptisms 1732-1850, Santa Cruz, NM. LDS Film 0016971. Also Santa Cruz de la Canada Baptisms 1710 - 1860, Extracted by Thomas Martinez, Benito Estevan Montoya and Rosena Lasalle (nee Vigil). March 25, 1993.

Milligan, Donald, Editor, Karen Mitchell, Agent. Genealogy of Selected Hispanic Families of New Mexico and Southern Colorado, 1538 - 1990, 1990.

Holy Cross Catholic Church Records, Santa Cruz, NM. Deaths 1726-1859. LDS Film 16975.

Hackett, Charles. Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermin's Attempted Reconquest 1680-1682. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 1942. page 116.

Chavez, Fray Angelico, "Origins of New Mexico Families," 1992.

Settlements and Missions, 1606-1680in New Mexico in Maps. Jerry L. Williams, Ed. 2nd Edition. Albquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 1986. p. 102.

Keegan, Marcia. Pueblo People: Ancient Traditions, Modern Lives. Santa Fe: Clear Light Publishers. 1999.

North America Road Atlas. American Automobile Association. Florida. 2000. May 02, 2000.


1880 U.S. Census Las Animas County, Colorado, Precinct 11, Page 31, ED 68, Line 20. LDS Film 1254090.

1880 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Precinct 1, Page 22, ED 61, Line 13. LDS Film 1254090.

1850 U.S. Census Northern Division, Territory of Taos, New Mexico, Page 151, Line 21. LDS Film 443667.

Huerfano County Genealogical Website, Chama Cemetery.

Huerfano County Genealogical Website, Gardner Catholic Cemetery.

1860 U.S. Census Territory of Taos, Costilla Precinct, New Mexico. Line 22. LDS Film 0803715.

1870 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado. Badito District, page 323, Line 28. LDS Film 545594.

Hirleman, Nancy Colvin, Historical Map of Huerfano County, Colorado. Copyright 1981 Nancy Colvin Hirleman. Revised 1996 Nancy C. Christofferson.

1880 U.S. Census, Las Animas County, Colorado, Page 31, ED 68, line 20. LDS Film 1254090.

1885 Colorado Census, Huerfano County, Page 36, ED 1, Line 30. LDS Film 498506.

Information supplied by Karen Mitchell.

Taos Baptisms 1701-1852 Baptism Database Manuscript of Aarchives held by the Archdiocese of Santa Fe and the State Archive of New Mexico. Database Entry by Thomas D. Martinez. July 18, 2000.

Index to Taos Marriages 1770 - 1860 Extracted by David Salazar. Indexed by Bill Trujillo. Sep 1994. Published by GSHA.


Abiquiu Baptism 1754-1870 Database entered by Thomas Martinez, 23 March 1993.


Henry Chenoweth, www.ghosttowns/com/
Go to United States, New Mexico, Colfax, Catskill.

1900 U.S. Census, Colfax County, New Mexico, Page 1, ED 34, Line 44. LDS Film 1246228.

U.S. Land Patent # NMNMAA 020406. Bureau of Land Management.

State of Utah - Department of Health Certificate of Death. Local File Nmber 18-2676. Filed 26 Jul 1989.

"Montrose County Colorado Cemetery and Burial Records," Volume 6, Cedar Cemetery, p. 56.

Montrose Daily Press Monday July 31, 1989, Section C4 p. 6.

Our Lady of Guadalupe Church Baptismal Records, Conejos, Colorado, page 30. Volume III, April 1868 to June 1871. Extraction of records by Karen Mitchell, August 1988.

1870 U.S. Census, Colorado Territory, Conejos County, Los Conejos Post Office, page 14. LDS Film 545594.

1880 U.S. Census, Colorado State, Huerfano County, ED 60, page 28, Precinct 10 Bear Creek. LDS Film 1254090.

1885 Colorado State Census, Huerfano County, ED 2, pages 31 and 32. LDS Film 929068.

U.S. Homestead Certificate No. 4250, as recorded in Vol 9, page 255, on 14 May, 1890 to Antonio Esteban Pacheco.

1900 U.S. Census, State of New Mexico, Colfax County, Precinct No. 14. ED 34 Page, Sheet 1. LDS Film 1242000.

Family history sheet from Anne Herrera. Most of her information came from Annie's Journal.

Huerfano County Genealogical Website, St. Mary's North Cemetery.

U.S. Social Security Death Index

Colorado State Penitentiary Records.

Huerfano County Genealogical Website, La Veta Cemetery.

"Homestead Entry Act, Thirty-Seventh congress, Session II, Ch. 75. 1862. May 20, 1862. Chap. LXXV. - An Act to Secure Homesteads to actual Settlers on the Public Domain." Obtained from the Bureau of Land Management.

Walsenburg County Courthouse Legal Transactions Records.

U.S. Land Patent # 970418.

1920 U.S. Census, State of Colorado, Huerfano County, Oakview Coal Camp Precinct No. 20, ED 90, Page 4B, House # 73.

State of Colorado, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Certificate of Death #4619 filed 29 May 1933.

Entry from Annie Galvan Cruz' personal journal.

Information from Gloria Cordova.

Our Lady of Guadalupe Church Baptismal Records, Conejos, Colorado, page 107. Volume III, April 1868 to June 1871. Extraction of records by Karen Mitchell, August 1988.

Application No. 2546, Clayton, NM U.S. Land Office.


1850 U.S. CensusCounty of Rio Arriba, New Mexico, Page 149, Line 48. LDS Film 443667. Note: The next page, which has Pablo and Avelina is out of order on the LDS film.

1860 U.S. Census Territory of Taos, Precinct No. 20 of Conejos, New Mexico. Page 195, Line 31. LDS Film 0803715.

1900 U.S. Census Precinct No 10 (North Veta), Huerfano County, Colorado. Page 22B, Line 6. LDS Film 1240124.

1920 U.S. Census Huerfano County, Colorado, Oakview Precinct No. 20, ED 90, Page 5A, family 81. LDS Film 1820165.


I never found a marriage license for them but he was listed (but crossed out) as the father of Esquizel in St Mary's Baptismal Records, and given as the head of the household with Manuela as the wife in the 1900 census.

Walsenburg World June 11, 1908, page 1.


State of Colorado Certificate of Death, Bureau of Vital Statistics, No. 7865, filed 30 Aug 1938.

1850 U.S. Census, The Northern Division in the County of Taos, New Mexico, Family No. 1115. LDS Film 443667.

1860 U.S. Census, Rio Colorado Precinct, Taos County, New Mexico. Family 1144. LDS Film 803715.

Nuestra Senora de Los Dolores Burial Records, Arroyo Hondo, Taos County, New Mexico. LDS Film No. 0016622.

1880 U.S. Census, Huerfano County, Colorado. ED 61, page 32, Family 315. LDS Film 1524090.

1885 U.S. Census, Huerfano County, Colorado. ED 2, Family 110. LDS Film 0498506.

Todd, Christina, Huerfano County, Colorado Marriages 1875-1900. Book 4 and Book 5. (Pueblo, CO 1979).

Marriages also listed on the Huerfano County Genealogical web site:

Marriage information assumed from 1850 census and birth of their children in Our Lady of Sorrows Baptismal Records, Arroyo Hondo.

Hafen, LeRoy R. (ed.), Ruxton of the Rockies (Norman, 1950).


1850 U.S. Census, The Northern Division, Taos Territory, New Mexico. Family 1534. LDS Film 443667.

1860 U.S. Census, Precinct of Culebra, Taos Territory, New Mexico. Family 1839. LDS Film 0803715.

1880 U.S. Census Precinct #10, Huerfano County, Colorado. ED 61, Page 40. Family 405. LDS Film 1254091.

1885 Colorado Census ED 2, Page 32. LDS Film 929068.

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1845 Spanish and Mexican Colonial Censuses of New Mexico, 1790, 1823, 1845. (1975)

Chavez, Fray Angelico, New Names in New Mexico, 1820-1850, (El Palacio), vol 64 (Sept-Oct 1959).

Chavez, Fray Angelico, Origins of New Mexico Families. (1992).

Hafen, LeRoy R. The Mountain Men And The Fur Trade of The Far West. (Glendale, CA 1968).

Hafen, LeRoy R. (ed.), Ruxton of the Rockies (Norman 1950).

Ruxton, George Frederick. Life in the Far West edited by LeRoy R. Hafen (Norman 1951).

Todd, Christina, Huerfano County, Colorado Marriages 1875-1900. Book 4 and Book 5. (Pueblo, CO 1979).

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© Karen Mitchell